Asn-346 replacement reduced significantly the MICs of all β-lacta

Asn-346 replacement reduced significantly the MICs of all β-lactams, except the Asn-346-Ile substitution that increased the MICs of cephalosporins, whereas it decreased those of carbapenems. The biochemical characterization, along with a molecular modeling study, showed that the size and the polarity of the side chain at position 346 assisted substrate binding and turnover. This study shows for the first time that the amino acid at position 346 contributes to the β-lactamase activity of cephalosporinases. Asparagine and isoleucine residues, which are well conserved

at position 346 among AmpC-type enzymes, modulate their hydrolysis spectrum in an opposing sense. Ile-346 Gefitinib confers higher level of cephalosporins resistance, whereas Asn-346 confers carbapenem resistance in combination with outer membrane impermeability. “
“Inhibition by light potentially influences the distribution of ammonia oxidizers in aquatic environments and is one explanation for nitrite maxima near the base of the euphotic zone

of oceanic waters. Previous studies of photoinhibition have been restricted to bacterial ammonia oxidizers, rather than archaeal ammonia oxidizers, which dominate in marine environments. To compare the photoinhibition of bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidizers, specific growth rates of two ammonia-oxidizing archaea (Nitrosopumilus maritimus and Nitrosotalea devanaterra) and bacteria (Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrosospira multiformis) were determined at different light intensities under continuous illumination and light/dark NU7441 price cycles. All strains were inhibited by continuous illumination at the highest intensity (500 μE m−2 s−1). At lower light intensities, archaeal growth was much more photosensitive than bacterial growth, with greater inhibition at 60 μE m−2 s−1 than at 15 μE m−2 s−1, where bacteria were unaffected. Archaeal ammonia oxidizers were also more sensitive to cycles of 8-h light/16-h darkness at two light intensities

(60 and 15 μE m−2 s−1) and, unlike bacterial strains, showed no evidence of recovery during dark phases. The findings provide evidence for niche differentiation in aquatic environments and reduce support for photoinhibition as an explanation SB-3CT of nitrite maxima in the ocean. Nitrification is a key process in the cycling of nitrogen in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The first, rate-limiting step of nitrification, the oxidation of ammonia (NH3) to nitrite (), is carried out by both ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB, Koops & Pommerening-Röser, 2001) and archaea belonging to the recently described thaumarchaea group (AOA, Spang et al., 2010). The first step in ammonia oxidation is catalysed by ammonia monooxygenase, and the subunit A gene (amoA) is the most commonly used marker for tracking ammonia oxidizers in environmental samples.

41966) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 5% horse s

41966) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 5% horse serum, 2 mm l-glutamine and 1% penicillin–streptomycin–fungizone (all supplements from Invitrogen). Cells at 80-90% confluency were transfected with the EGFP, KCC2-FL, KCC2-ΔNTD and KCC2-C568A expression vectors using Lipofectamine 2000 (Invitrogen) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. At 24 or 48 h after transfection, cells were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde and then permeabilized and blocked in 7% non-fat dry milk and 0.1% Triton

X-100 in PBS. Incubation with primary antibodies was done at 4°C overnight. See Table 1 for antibody details. The following day, the cells were rinsed and secondary antibodies were incubated for 1.5 h. Endogenous actin was visualized with FITC- or TRITC-phalloidin (Sigma-Aldrich) diluted to 50 μg/mL in the same solution as the secondary antibody. Thereafter the cells were rinsed Ferroptosis mutation in PBS and mounted in Vectashield Hard Set mounting medium (Vector Laboratories), before analysis by fluorescent (Zeiss AxioExaminer D1; 40 × objective) or confocal (Leica TCS-SP;

40 × objective) microscopy. Transfected C17.2 cells were extracted in ice-cold lysis buffer [50 mm Tris, pH 7.4, 150 mm sodium chloride, 1% NP-40, 1 mm EDTA and 1 ×  protease inhibitor cocktail (Roche)] and the extracts were incubated with R428 3 μg of a rabbit (Upstate) or monoclonal (NeuroMab) KCC2 antibody. Immunoprecipitates were collected on Protein G Sepharose Fast flow beads (GE Healthcare Biosciences, Uppsala, Sweden) by overnight rotation, washed with lysis buffer, resuspended in 2 × Laemmli sample buffer, and subjected to SDS-PAGE followed by Western

blot analysis using anti-4.1N and anti-KCC2 antibodies at a 1 : 2000 dilution. This method has been described previously (Lindqvist et al., 2010; see also Liang et al., 2007). Briefly, subconfluent C17.2 cells were transfected and then allowed to reach 100% confluency. The cells were then treated with 10 μm Mitomycin C (Sigma-Aldrich) for 3 h to arrest the cell cycle. A scratch was introduced through the cell layer using a pipette tip. The medium was changed to serum-reduced (1% FBS) to keep the cells Idoxuridine from dividing, and a line was drawn underneath the culture dish perpendicular to the scratch. Pictures were taken just above or below the line under a light phase-contrast microscope (Nikon Eclipse TE200; 10 × objective), immediately (T = 0) and after 18 h (T = 18 h). For quantification of β-tubulin III/TuJ1, phospho-histone-3, doublecortin, PSA-NCAM and Caspase-3 (Fig. 4 and Supporting information, Fig. S3), the length and width of the neural tube was measured based on micrographs using the measuring tool in Adobe Photoshop CS (Adobe Systems Inc., San Jose, CA, USA). Positive cells were counted manually and a mark was made on each cell to avoid double counting. The number of cells was divided by the total area of the neural tube. The area unit for the neural tube measurements is mm2.

All strains were resistant to aminoglycosides owing to the presen

All strains were resistant to aminoglycosides owing to the presence of genes encoding AMEs and to fluoroquinolones owing to both Ser83Leu substitution in GyrA and Ser80Phe substitution in ParC. All strains had

the adeR gene, indicating the possibility that there could be enhanced expression of the AdeABC efflux pump and accounting for non-susceptibility to fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and tetracyclines. aIEF and PCR screening did not suggest a carbapenemase in tested strains although all were highly carbapenem-resistant. We suspect the presence of an insertion sequence (IS) upstream of the blaOXA-Ab gene, which can increase SRT1720 the expression of the OXA-Ab β-lactamase (Poirel & Nordmann, 2006). Similarly, non-susceptibility to anti-pseudomonal penicillins in combination with a β-lactamase inhibitor and to anti-pseudomonal cephalosporins could be due to the presence of an IS upstream of the blaADC gene, which increases the expression level of the ADC

β-lactamase (Heritier et al., 2006). In the context of carbapenem resistance and efflux pump, the IMP–DOX combination was indifferent to all given strains. On the other hand, the COL–DOX combination was additive or synergistic to four of five strains. The AN-containing antibiotic combinations, IMP–AN, COL–AN, and TGC–AN, were indifferent to tested strains, Cabozantinib supplier all of which had a single gene encoding AME and were resistant to AN. Strains exhibiting the same profile of bla genes on our aIEF and PCR screening did not show the same response to β-lactam-containing combinations. For example, strains 12 and 13 showed the same pattern of bla genes and were resistant to COL.

In the presence of COL, MICIMP of strain 12 decreased by 81% (i.e. from 32 to 6 mg L−1), while that of strain 13 decreased by only 50% (i.e. from 32 to 16). The effects of antibiotic combinations on our MDR A. baumannii strains appeared to be strain-specific, regardless of clonality. Org 27569 Even two strains belonging to the same clone could possess different antibiotic resistance determinants and hence demonstrate different responses to antibiotic combinations. In the presence of a gene encoding AME and conferring AN resistance, all AN-containing combinations were consistently indifferent. This observation renders an AN-containing combination a poor candidate for empirical treatment for AN-resistant, MDR A. baumannii. Combining IMP and DOX did not appear to modify the effect of carbapenem resistance or efflux pump. On the other hand, the COL–DOX combination was additive or synergistic to four of five strains. We speculated that COL might have attenuated the effect of efflux pump, reducing MICDOX. Clinicians will consider combination antibiotic therapy against MDR A. baumannii, particularly if the strain is also resistant to COL.

, 2004; Christianson et al, 2010) or both structures (Wu et al,

, 2004; Christianson et al., 2010) or both structures (Wu et al., 1999; Yang et al., 2008), Lino-de-Oliveira et al. (2002, 2006) showed that microinjections of glutamate into the DPAG reduce floating behavior whereas those of lidocaine had the opposite effect. Most importantly, the latter authors also showed that sub-chronic administrations of antidepressants reduce FST-induced increases in fos-like immunoreactivity in most columns of the PAG (Lino-de-Oliveira et al., 2002, 2006). Most notably, Natural Product Library however, recent data from positron-emission tomography

in rats (microPET) showed that whereas the PAG is markedly activated during FST training session, it remains inactive in test sessions (Jang et al., 2009). Lastly, plenty of evidence suggests that the protective effect of controllable stress is mediated by prefrontal cortex efferents to neurons of dorsal raphe (DR) which project to the DPAG (Maier Forskolin in vivo et al., 1995; Neumaier et al., 1997; Amat et al., 2005, 2006; Maier & Watkins, 2005; Rozeske et al., 2011). However, whereas the DR is the target of prefrontal cortex projections, predominantly inhibitory (Celada et al.,2001; Goncalves et al., 2009), the stimulation of DR either excites (directly) or inhibits (indirectly) the DPAG (Stezhka & Lovick, 1994). Moreover, DPAG levels of 5-HT did

not change either during exposure to IS (Amat et al., 1998) or 1 week thereafter (C.A. Rosa, unpublished results). Although the nature of DPAG-evoked freezing remains a matter of debate (De Oca et al., 1998; Schenberg et al., 2001, 2005; Vianna et al., 2001a,b), it is noteworthy that freezing was also markedly attenuated 1 week after exposure C59 research buy to IS. Consequently, the attenuation of DPAG-evoked escape behaviors cannot be ascribed to a facilitation of freezing at the

expense of trotting and galloping behaviors. Alternatively, the impairment of both passive (freezing) and active (flight) behaviors is best explained by the inhibition of a DPAG in-built motivational system. Therefore, rather than a ‘panicolytic effect’, the attenuation of elevated T-maze (De Paula Soares et al., 2011) and DPAG-evoked escape behaviors following the exposure to uncontrollable stress may be a reflection of a decrease in resilience to stress. This possibility is supported by the much greater attenuation of trotting and galloping, the responses most effective in one-way shuttle-box escape training, than of jumping. Strong et al. (2011) suggested, on the other hand, that 5-HT2C receptors of dorsal striatum (DS) play a crucial role in learning deficits of inescapably-shocked rats. In particular, whereas the microinjections of a 5-HT2C receptor antagonist into DS prevented the escape failure, microinjections of a respective agonist impaired learning even in the absence of prior exposure to IS. Accordingly, it is tempting to speculate that DPAG and DS mediate, respectively, motivational and learning aspects of helplessness.

Passengers with potential exposure to these VPD were notified by

Passengers with potential exposure to these VPD were notified by letters. All susceptible crew members with potential exposure were administered the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine after informed consent. A total of 16 cases were identified only among crew members: 1 rubella, 3 measles (two-generation spread), 11 varicella (three-generation spread), and 1 unknown diagnosis. Of 1,197 crew members evaluated, 4 had proof of immunity to measles and rubella. Based on passive surveillance, no cases were identified among passengers, the majority of whom resided in the United States. The international makeup of the population aboard cruise ships combined

with their semi-enclosed environment MK-1775 mw has the potential to facilitate introduction and spread of VPD such as measles, rubella, and varicella onboard and into communities. Cruise lines should ensure crew members have evidence of immunity to these diseases. Passengers should be up to date with all vaccinations, including those that are travel-specific, prior to embarking on cruise travel. To prevent the introduction and spread of communicable diseases in the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) operates 20 quarantine stations (QS) located at major US ports of entry and land border crossings.[1] Under federal quarantine regulations, US-bound international

conveyances, including cruise ships, are required to report to CDC QS all onboard incidents of deaths and febrile illnesses suggestive of communicable Ganetespib manufacturer diseases with a potential to spread via the traveling population and adversely impact the public’s health.

In collaboration with state and local health departments and conveyance operators, such reports are received and investigated by the CDC QS closest to the arrival port.[1] These efforts are consistent with the revised (2005) International Health Regulations, which require surveillance and response to public health threats at ports with minimal interruption of travel andtrade.[2] On February 17, 2006, a cruise line notified the CDC Miami Quarantine Station about a case of febrile rash illness in a 23-year-old Ukrainian crew member, who boarded the cruise ship to work in food services and ROS1 13 days later became ill with a febrile rash illness diagnosed by the ship’s physician as acute rubella. Serologic testing, however, confirmed an acute measles infection [positive anti-measles immunoglobulin M (IgM)] and immunity to rubella. On February 20, the Brevard County (Florida) Health Department (BCHD) notified the CDC Miami Quarantine Station of a second case of acute rash illness on the same ship; a 35-year-old Filipino crew member had boarded the ship to work in youth activities, and 9 days later developed a rash illness, requiring evaluation in the ship’s infirmary. Serological testing confirmed acute rubella infection (positive anti-rubella IgM).

Bacterial pellets were collected by centrifugation and resuspende

Bacterial pellets were collected by centrifugation and resuspended in the purification buffer (150 mM NaCl, 20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.2, 0.5% Triton X-100). The samples were sonicated, and centrifuged to remove unlysed bacteria and insoluble debris. The GST-fusion proteins were purified using glutathione sepharose-4B beads according to manufacturers’ protocols (GE Healthcare) or used in other assays. For the co-purification assay, the bacterial supernatant fraction from E. coli harbouring pGEX1516/1517 was mixed with glutathione

sepharose-4B beads and agitated for 1 h at 4 °C. After washing with Tris-HCl buffer, pH 8.0, SDS-loading buffer was added and the sample was boiled for 10 min for SDS-PAGE followed by Western blot with anti-BPSS1516 antibodies. For the GST pull-down assay, a lysate from E. coli carrying pGEX-1516 expressing GST-fused BPSS1516 (GST1516) Enzalutamide was mixed with glutathione sepharose-4B beads. After washing off the unbound proteins, the beads with bound GST-BPSS1516 were mixed with a crude lysate from E. coli harbouring pTrc1517His and incubated for 1 h at 4 °C. The unbound proteins were removed by washing with purification buffer. The beads were analysed using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting with anti-His-tag antibodies (Abgent) and polyclonal anti-BPSS1516 antibodies. To investigate if BPSS1516 contains a secretion signal sufficient

to induce translocation of a reporter protein through the T3SS, a β-lactamase-based translocation assay was performed as described previously Selleckchem Volasertib (Charpentier & Oswald, 2004). Fluorescence was measured on a Fluostar Optima Reader with excitation at 410 nm. The emission was detected via 450 nm (blue) and 520 nm (green) filters.

The measure of translocation was expressed as the emission ratio of 450/520 nm Ixazomib concentration to normalize the β-lactamase activity to cell loading and the number of cells present in each well. Experiments were performed in triplicate. Insertional inactivation of bpss1516 gene was performed using the suicide vector pKNOCK-1516. The plasmid was delivered into B. pseudomallei K96243 by conjugation from E. coli S17-1/λpir and transconjugants were selected on plates with 400 μg mL−1 kanamycin. The bpss1516 mutant was verified using PCR and Southern blot. Burkholderia pseudomallei invasion assays were performed according to a previously described protocol (Muangsombut et al., 2008) with the following minor modifications. An multiplicity of infection of 25 : 1 was used for an infection of 2 h. Media containing 200 μg mL−1 gentamicin plus 300 μg mL−1 spectinomycin was used for killing extracellular bacteria. To identify uncharacterized Bsa T3SS effector candidates, we analysed the published datasets of B. pseudomallei gene expression during growth in the presence of 1% arabinose (Moore et al., 2004). A locus including bpss1517 and bpss1516 was selected for further analysis because the two genes were found to be co-regulated with other Bsa-related genes (Moore et al.

Studies show that the BCGS can compensate

Studies show that the BCGS can compensate BIBW2992 effectively for severe insulin deficiency, so the suggestion is that additional failure of the BCGS needs to take place in order for diabetes to occur.14 Proper BCGS function depends on normal islet function,

relying on insulin and other insulin-dependent hormones, e.g. leptin, or defective in type 2 diabetes, e.g. GLP-1. Animal models with selective hypothalamic neuronal damage show an impaired ability to respond to regulate glucose and weight leading to the metabolic syndrome.15 Whether some form of hypothalamic injury is occurring in humans with diabetes is under investigation but there are some early data to support this possibility.16 It is becoming apparent that glucose homeostasis

is not entirely reliant on peripheral mechanisms. Metabolic pathways which are insulin-independent are recognised to play an important part in glucose effectiveness; however, it is unclear as to the extent that the BCGS regulates this. More research work is required to look at to what degree normal blood glucose control depends on a functioning BCGS. In turn, does the aetiology of type 2 diabetes relate to BCGS dysfunction learn more and, in conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease, is the degree of neuronal damage a glucose mediated effect? Finally, knowledge that hormones such as GLP-1, GIP and FGF-19 act on the brain to improve glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity opens up new therapeutic opportunities for treatment tuclazepam targets. In the complex, developing field of diabetes we are still not sure of whether the body rules the mind or whether the mind rules the body. And what more am I? I look for aid to the imagination. [But how mistakenly!] I am not that assemblage of limbs we call the human body; I am not a subtle penetrating air distributed throughout all these members; I am not a wind, a

fire, a vapor, a breath or anything at all that I can image. I am supposing all these things to be nothing. Yet I find, while so doing, that I am still assured that I am a something. René Descartes. ‘Meditations on First Philosophy: In which the existence of God and the distinction of the soul from the body are demonstrated. There are no conflicts of interest declared. “
“The earliest randomized trials of treatment of gestational diabetes suggested that it may be effective in reducing perinatal mortality but in the intervening years perinatal mortality has become a very rare endpoint. The case for management of hyperglycemia associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is now based on reducing perinatal morbidity. The majority of GDM cases will respond to dietary management and a high carbohydrate low glycemic index diet is recommended. Structured education and dietary management programs for Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes probably have a role in the management of GDM as well.

thuringiensis HD-1), hybridization experiments were performed usi

thuringiensis HD-1), hybridization experiments were performed using fragments of the STA-9090 cost three most abundant IS elements (IS231C, IS232A and ISBth166) of different families as probes (Fig. 1). There are no sites for Bst1107I and EcoRI within these elements. The result showed that

the most multitudinous IS231C had slightly different hybridization profiles between these two isolates, which indicated that it did not cause large-scale rearrangements. The observed variations in band patterns for IS232A and ISBth166 may result from homologous recombination between copies of these elements on chromosome or plasmids or may just be a result of their transposition to different locations. The increased number of identical copies within the YBT-1520 genome, numerous insertion events within functional genes and the identical positioning in different isolates suggest the recent expansion of IS231C. To explore the mobility of these three IS elements, we examined the changes in their Southern blot pattern during 30 repeated passages (bacterial generations) of YBT-1520 in vitro, which showed completely identical patterns, suggesting that these elements are relatively stable (data not shown). As two molecular markers of Btk were found in ISBth166 and PCR experiments indicated its existence in non-kurstaki

strains, the distribution of ISBth166 among B. thuringiensis Stem Cell Compound Library solubility dmso serovars was further examined by Southern Flavopiridol (Alvocidib) blot analysis (Fig. 2). The restriction enzyme EcoRI was selected for B. thuringiensi genomic DNA digestions because

of the clear banding patterns. The resulting fragments were separated by agarose gel electrophoresis and probed with ISBth166 (see Materials and methods). The hybridization patterns showed that the five kurstaki strains hybridized strongly with the ISBth166 probe, while the other strains showed weak or null hybridization, suggesting that ISBth166 is widely distributed among kurstaki strains. The weak hybridization signal among some non-kurstaki strains may indicate the presence of ISs distantly related to ISBth166 or may reflect a lower copy number of the target sequence. The hybridization profiles of kurstaki strains showed a slight variation in the number and position of bands, while the strong hybridization signals may indicate the plasmid-borne elements that had more than one copy. Strains HD-231 and HD-232 showed the same hybridization patterns. The hybridization pattern of YBT-1520 was most similar to that of HD-263, with only one additional band. This result yielded useful indications for further experimental work to reveal the possible correlation between Lepidopteran larvae toxicity and the presence of ISBth166-related elements and the evolutionary relationships among the ISBth166 variants. In this study, 68 intact copies of 14 distinct IS elements were identified in the B.

“Objectives  Many health professionals lack the time and s

“Objectives  Many health professionals lack the time and skills to search for and appraise information on medicines. A solution might be to use others skilled in evidence appraisal, who make recommendations or provide information tailored to patients’ needs. The objectives of this study were to assess how advice provided to health professionals by the northwest of England regional medicines

information centre is used, whether it is useful for patient care and to measure satisfaction with the service. Methods  A questionnaire was designed and sent to health professionals MK-2206 in vitro who contacted the centre between September 2008 and March 2009. Enquirers contacting the centre more than once were sent a questionnaire only in response to their first enquiry during the study period. Non-responders were sent a reminder. Key findings  Questionnaires were sent to 672 enquirers; 68% were returned. Nearly all respondents used the advice provided. Of the 430 respondents who provided data on how they used the information, 81% used it to manage a current patient and 29% to plan the care of future patients; nearly all considered it useful. Y-27632 solubility dmso Where data were given (n = 366), half used it to check if current

or proposed management was appropriate, 45% to make changes to therapy and 35% to advise another health professional. In addition to patient care, one-quarter (n = 105/430) of respondents used the information for continuing professional development and 16% (n = 69/430) for training or teaching. Conclusions  Health professionals value the enquiry-answering service and use the advice provided for patient care, continuing professional development and educating

patients and other health professionals. The service is responsive, supporting the care of patients needing immediate and future Idoxuridine management. “
“It is with great pleasure that I introduce this supplemental issue of the International Journal of Pharmacy Practice. In this supplement you will find abstracts of the pharmacy practice research papers and posters presented at the 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society Conference, held at the International Convention Centre, Birmingham. The theme of this year’s conference is ‘Building the future of the profession. In common with previous years, this supplement has been prepared in advance of the conference, to allow participants in the practice research sessions to read the abstracts prior to the sessions. 192 abstracts were submitted for the Royal Pharmaceutical Society Conference 2013, and this year the Society’s Pharmacy Research Panel accepted 138 for poster or oral presentation at the Conference. Please note that although the abstracts have already been examined by the Panel, they have not passed through the peer review process applied by the IJPP to all other contributions.

However, compliance with pre-travel advice on personal hygiene me

However, compliance with pre-travel advice on personal hygiene measures was limited, since half of the participants experienced one or more episodes of diarrhea, indicating exposure to feco-oral infection, as was demonstrated in another study conducted in the same cohort.8 These results suggest that personal hygiene measures were of limited contribution to the low seroconversion to anti-HEV. Pre-travel, we found an anti-HEV seroprevalence of 2.0% (24 out of 1206) which is comparable to the seroprevalence in the general Dutch population (0.5–2%).9,10 No risk factors for previous HEV infection

were identified. Despite the limitations of this study we conclude that the risk for short-term travelers DAPT to acquire a hepatitis E infection is very low. The authors state they have no conflicts of interest to declare. “
“It is well known that animals show a stress response when confronted with a novel environment. The aim of the this study was to investigate whether humans show a similar response by studying the reaction to a travel-related transitory change of residence. Forty-eight individuals (32 women, 16 men, age 40–83 years) traveling to a health resort approximately 120 km from their home town participated in the study. Individuals

monitored their blood pressure (BP) twice a day 3 weeks before Selleck HSP inhibitor (baseline) and during the stay and filled out a diary stating their mood and sleep. The change of the variables relative to baseline on the day before departure, the travel day, and the day after arrival as well as 5 days after arrival were determined. Systolic and diastolic BPs were increased on the day before travel and diastolic BP remained increased on the travel day and the day after arrival. Sleep was poorer during the first night at the new residence. All three variables had returned to baseline level 5 days into the stay. Mood was not affected by the

change of residence. The ID-8 results indicate that not only the change of residence but also its anticipation affects individuals in a transient way. The findings are relevant not only for the basic understanding of the reaction to novel environments but also to travel, tourism as well as rehabilitation, and spa-research. Humans as well as animals are sensitive to changes in their environment. The most prominent feature is the so-called orienting response, a short-term psychophysiological reaction improving information uptake and attention and potentially preparing for fight or flight when confronted with a novel stimulus.[1-3] Typically, however, the individual will get used to the stimuli after repeated presentations or prolonged exposure and habituate, thereby ceasing to show any further response.[4, 5] In animals, a commonly used paradigm for the study of more enduring reactions is “environmental novelty” used to explore, among others, stress, fear, and exploration.