Viral, metabolic, and genetic causes of liver disease were exclud

Viral, metabolic, and genetic causes of liver disease were excluded by appropriate investigations, all patients being negative for anti–hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B surface

antigen, Epstein-Barr virus, and cytomegalovirus serological markers of active infection. From 9 of 16 [A] patients, blood was obtained before treatment; the remaining 7 [A] patients were studied at relapse during immunosuppression tapering (3 were on 4 mg of methylprednisolone daily and 4 were on 2-4 mg of methylprednisolone and 50 mg of azathioprine daily). The 31 [R] patients had normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma-globulin levels for a median of 40 months (range = 8-120 months); 21 were on 2 to 4 mg of methylprednisolone daily, 3 were on 50 mg of azathioprine daily, and 7 were on 2 to 4 mg of methylprednisolone and 50 to 100 mg of azathioprine daily. Doxorubicin The median duration of immunosuppression was 42 months (range = 12-237 months). Liver biopsy showed histological features of interface hepatitis in all 38 patients at diagnosis. In the

group of [A] patients, ANAs were present in 12 patients, SMAs were present in 6, soluble liver antigen was present in 1, and anti-mitochondrial antibodies were present in 1 (ANAs and SMAs BTK inhibitor purchase co-occurred in 3 individuals). At diagnosis, all 31 [R] patients tested positive for autoantibodies (ANAs and SMAs were detected in 19 and 21 subjects, respectively, and co-occurred in 15), whereas at the time of study, 7 (28%) had lost all autoreactivity (ANAs and/or SMAs were still present in 22 subjects and co-occurred in 4). At diagnosis, all patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of the International Cediranib (AZD2171) Autoimmune Hepatitis Group.5 Clinical and laboratory features are summarized in Table 1. All 16 [A] patients had high aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and bilirubin levels, increased international normalized ratios (INRs), high gamma-globulin and immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels, and seropositivity for autoantibodies. All [R] patients had normal biochemical tests, but autoantibodies were still detectable in half. Sera

were tested for non–organ-specific autoantibodies by indirect immunofluorescence on cryostatic sections of rat liver, kidney, and stomach specimens at an initial serum dilution of 1:40.33 Anti–soluble liver antigen was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay according to the manufacturer’s instructions (Euroimmun, Lubeck, Germany). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were prepared from 20 mL of peripheral blood with preservative-free heparin (10 U/mL), diluted 1:1 with Roswell Park Memorial Institute 1640 (RPMI-1640) medium (Invitrogen Life Technologies, Paisley, United Kingdom), and separated with Ficoll-Hypaque (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech, Ltd., Little Chalfont, United Kingdom). PBMCs were collected and washed twice with RPMI-1640. Viability, determined by trypan blue exclusion, always exceeded 98%.

Viral, metabolic, and genetic causes of liver disease were exclud

Viral, metabolic, and genetic causes of liver disease were excluded by appropriate investigations, all patients being negative for anti–hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B surface

antigen, Epstein-Barr virus, and cytomegalovirus serological markers of active infection. From 9 of 16 [A] patients, blood was obtained before treatment; the remaining 7 [A] patients were studied at relapse during immunosuppression tapering (3 were on 4 mg of methylprednisolone daily and 4 were on 2-4 mg of methylprednisolone and 50 mg of azathioprine daily). The 31 [R] patients had normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma-globulin levels for a median of 40 months (range = 8-120 months); 21 were on 2 to 4 mg of methylprednisolone daily, 3 were on 50 mg of azathioprine daily, and 7 were on 2 to 4 mg of methylprednisolone and 50 to 100 mg of azathioprine daily. BAY 57-1293 order The median duration of immunosuppression was 42 months (range = 12-237 months). Liver biopsy showed histological features of interface hepatitis in all 38 patients at diagnosis. In the

group of [A] patients, ANAs were present in 12 patients, SMAs were present in 6, soluble liver antigen was present in 1, and anti-mitochondrial antibodies were present in 1 (ANAs and SMAs Navitoclax co-occurred in 3 individuals). At diagnosis, all 31 [R] patients tested positive for autoantibodies (ANAs and SMAs were detected in 19 and 21 subjects, respectively, and co-occurred in 15), whereas at the time of study, 7 (28%) had lost all autoreactivity (ANAs and/or SMAs were still present in 22 subjects and co-occurred in 4). At diagnosis, all patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of the International Florfenicol Autoimmune Hepatitis Group.5 Clinical and laboratory features are summarized in Table 1. All 16 [A] patients had high aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and bilirubin levels, increased international normalized ratios (INRs), high gamma-globulin and immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels, and seropositivity for autoantibodies. All [R] patients had normal biochemical tests, but autoantibodies were still detectable in half. Sera

were tested for non–organ-specific autoantibodies by indirect immunofluorescence on cryostatic sections of rat liver, kidney, and stomach specimens at an initial serum dilution of 1:40.33 Anti–soluble liver antigen was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay according to the manufacturer’s instructions (Euroimmun, Lubeck, Germany). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were prepared from 20 mL of peripheral blood with preservative-free heparin (10 U/mL), diluted 1:1 with Roswell Park Memorial Institute 1640 (RPMI-1640) medium (Invitrogen Life Technologies, Paisley, United Kingdom), and separated with Ficoll-Hypaque (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech, Ltd., Little Chalfont, United Kingdom). PBMCs were collected and washed twice with RPMI-1640. Viability, determined by trypan blue exclusion, always exceeded 98%.

Results:  The most common symptoms of cardiac metastasis included

Results:  The most common symptoms of cardiac metastasis included asymptomatic

in 19 cases (39.5%), bilateral lower leg edema in 18 cases (37.5%) and exertional dyspnea in 15 cases (31.3%). The median and mean survival times from the time of diagnosis of cardiac metastasis were 102 days and 161 days, respectively. Compared with another cohort of 48 patients with age-, gender-, and stage-matched HCC patients without cardiac metastasis, the median survival in the DAPT molecular weight cardiac metastasis group was similar to the control group (68 days) (P = 0.67). The cause of death was HCC in 29, hepatic failure in seven, multiple organ failure in four, gastrointestinal bleeding in three, sepsis in two, pulmonary embolism in one, respiratory failure in one, and acute myocardial infarction in one. Conclusions:  Hepatocellular carcinoma patients with cardiac metastases were in the advanced stages. These patients had limited survival from the diagnosis of cardiac metastases. The most common cause of death was related this website to HCC per se or the underlying liver disease. Only a few patients expired because of cardiac metastases. “
“Aim:  Patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 2 are more sensitive to interferon (IFN) therapy than those infected with genotype 1, but 10–20% of patients do not achieve a sustained viral response

(SVR) to combination therapy with pegylated (PEG) IFN and ribavirin (RBV). This study examines the prognostic factors associated with SVR in patients infected with HCV genotype 2 treated with Methamphetamine PEG IFN and RBV. Methods:  We treated 149 patients with chronic hepatitis C caused by HCV genotype 2. The patients received s.c. PEG IFN-α-2b (1.5 µg/kg) and a weekly weight-adjusted dose of RBV (600, 800 and 1000 mg per <60, 60–80 and >80 kg,

respectively) for 24 weeks and then prognostic factors associated with the SVR were examined. Results:  Among the 149 patients, 138 completed the combination therapy and a sustained viral response was achieved in 71.8% of them. Univariate analysis showed that age, as well as mean RBV and PEG IFN doses were factors affecting the SVR (P = 0.012, =0.021, =0.014). Multivariate analysis identified age and mean PEG IFN dose (P = 0.021, =0.018, respectively) as factors involved in the SVR, but not mean RBV dose. Conclusion:  The SVR of patients infected with HCV genotype 2 depended on the dosage of PEG IFN, but not of RBV. Selecting sufficient doses of PEG IFN for combination with RBV is critical for treating such patients. “
“Background and Aim:  Refractory ascites in liver-cirrhosis is associated with a poor prognosis. We performed a prospective study to investigate whether aggressive nutritional-support could improve outcomes in cirrhotic patients. Methods:  Cirrhotic patients undergoing serial large-volume paracentesis for refractory-ascites were enrolled and randomized into three groups.

This panel of four preparations was produced from genomic DNA (gD

This panel of four preparations was produced from genomic DNA (gDNA) extracted from immortalized cell lines produced by Epstein-Barr virus transformation of lymphocytes from blood samples of consented donors. The samples were obtained from two normal individuals (male and female), an intron 22 inversion-positive female carrier and an intron 22 inversion-positive AZD8055 ic50 male. An international collaborative study involving fourteen laboratories, employing a total of six different methods with three different underlying principles, evaluated the suitability of the proposed panel of gDNA samples

as the 1st International Genetic Reference Panel for Hemophilia A Intron 22 Inversion, Human gDNA. With the exception of one laboratory that returned erroneous results, all other participants were able to genotype every coded sample correctly. All errors concerned the intron 22 inversion-positive female carrier DNA, which was genotyped as a normal individual. With three incorrect results in 166 tests, the overall error rate for this study was 1.8%. These data indicate that errors in genotyping Maraviroc order can occur and the vast majority of laboratories can use these materials to obtain the correct result. They also show that the panel is suitable for use as reference materials for normal females, normal

males, intron 22 inversion-positive female carriers, and intron 22 inversion-positive affected males. With the exception of one laboratory that did not run known patient samples as in-assay control, all other labs employed appropriate assay control, thereby confirming

the commutability of the panel. In 2008, the World Health Organisation (WHO) established this stable reference panel of genomic-DNA (gDNA) (NIBSC Code, 08/160) to support the genetic testing of intron 22 mutation [45]. This panel Protein kinase N1 has been distributed worldwide and has proven to be useful in aiding laboratories to set up and validate their methods. The success of this panel establishes the basis for the future production of genetic reference materials for bleeding disorders. With the advent of molecular genetic techniques, it is obvious that several aspects of care for patients with bleeding disorders have improved substantially over the last five decades. Along with accurate genetic diagnosis of haemophilia and other bleeding disorders, molecular genetics has further enhanced our understanding of the functional biology of proteins involved in blood coagulation, elucidated the basis of inhibitor development and informed new therapeutic approaches such as development of newer clotting factor concentrates and gene therapy. The authors stated that they had no interests which might be perceived as posing a conflict or bias. “
“Factor VIII (FVIII) is a multidomain blood plasma glycoprotein.

This panel of four preparations was produced from genomic DNA (gD

This panel of four preparations was produced from genomic DNA (gDNA) extracted from immortalized cell lines produced by Epstein-Barr virus transformation of lymphocytes from blood samples of consented donors. The samples were obtained from two normal individuals (male and female), an intron 22 inversion-positive female carrier and an intron 22 inversion-positive 3-MA datasheet male. An international collaborative study involving fourteen laboratories, employing a total of six different methods with three different underlying principles, evaluated the suitability of the proposed panel of gDNA samples

as the 1st International Genetic Reference Panel for Hemophilia A Intron 22 Inversion, Human gDNA. With the exception of one laboratory that returned erroneous results, all other participants were able to genotype every coded sample correctly. All errors concerned the intron 22 inversion-positive female carrier DNA, which was genotyped as a normal individual. With three incorrect results in 166 tests, the overall error rate for this study was 1.8%. These data indicate that errors in genotyping MG 132 can occur and the vast majority of laboratories can use these materials to obtain the correct result. They also show that the panel is suitable for use as reference materials for normal females, normal

males, intron 22 inversion-positive female carriers, and intron 22 inversion-positive affected males. With the exception of one laboratory that did not run known patient samples as in-assay control, all other labs employed appropriate assay control, thereby confirming

the commutability of the panel. In 2008, the World Health Organisation (WHO) established this stable reference panel of genomic-DNA (gDNA) (NIBSC Code, 08/160) to support the genetic testing of intron 22 mutation [45]. This panel RANTES has been distributed worldwide and has proven to be useful in aiding laboratories to set up and validate their methods. The success of this panel establishes the basis for the future production of genetic reference materials for bleeding disorders. With the advent of molecular genetic techniques, it is obvious that several aspects of care for patients with bleeding disorders have improved substantially over the last five decades. Along with accurate genetic diagnosis of haemophilia and other bleeding disorders, molecular genetics has further enhanced our understanding of the functional biology of proteins involved in blood coagulation, elucidated the basis of inhibitor development and informed new therapeutic approaches such as development of newer clotting factor concentrates and gene therapy. The authors stated that they had no interests which might be perceived as posing a conflict or bias. “
“Factor VIII (FVIII) is a multidomain blood plasma glycoprotein.

This panel of four preparations was produced from genomic DNA (gD

This panel of four preparations was produced from genomic DNA (gDNA) extracted from immortalized cell lines produced by Epstein-Barr virus transformation of lymphocytes from blood samples of consented donors. The samples were obtained from two normal individuals (male and female), an intron 22 inversion-positive female carrier and an intron 22 inversion-positive this website male. An international collaborative study involving fourteen laboratories, employing a total of six different methods with three different underlying principles, evaluated the suitability of the proposed panel of gDNA samples

as the 1st International Genetic Reference Panel for Hemophilia A Intron 22 Inversion, Human gDNA. With the exception of one laboratory that returned erroneous results, all other participants were able to genotype every coded sample correctly. All errors concerned the intron 22 inversion-positive female carrier DNA, which was genotyped as a normal individual. With three incorrect results in 166 tests, the overall error rate for this study was 1.8%. These data indicate that errors in genotyping GDC-0980 in vivo can occur and the vast majority of laboratories can use these materials to obtain the correct result. They also show that the panel is suitable for use as reference materials for normal females, normal

males, intron 22 inversion-positive female carriers, and intron 22 inversion-positive affected males. With the exception of one laboratory that did not run known patient samples as in-assay control, all other labs employed appropriate assay control, thereby confirming

the commutability of the panel. In 2008, the World Health Organisation (WHO) established this stable reference panel of genomic-DNA (gDNA) (NIBSC Code, 08/160) to support the genetic testing of intron 22 mutation [45]. This panel SDHB has been distributed worldwide and has proven to be useful in aiding laboratories to set up and validate their methods. The success of this panel establishes the basis for the future production of genetic reference materials for bleeding disorders. With the advent of molecular genetic techniques, it is obvious that several aspects of care for patients with bleeding disorders have improved substantially over the last five decades. Along with accurate genetic diagnosis of haemophilia and other bleeding disorders, molecular genetics has further enhanced our understanding of the functional biology of proteins involved in blood coagulation, elucidated the basis of inhibitor development and informed new therapeutic approaches such as development of newer clotting factor concentrates and gene therapy. The authors stated that they had no interests which might be perceived as posing a conflict or bias. “
“Factor VIII (FVIII) is a multidomain blood plasma glycoprotein.

Interestingly, effective analogues were not affected by the L20F

Interestingly, effective analogues were not affected by the L20F mutation, despite adamantyl moieties interacting identically with the Ama/Rim binding pocket. However, extended analogue side chains formed additional interactions with A41 and G46, which presumably overcame disruption caused by L20F. We next designed nonadamantane molecules using the “Draw” function in Maestro with a high predicted affinity for the J4 and JFH-1 binding sites. These were screened in a subgenomic replicon for effects on HCV RNA replication and cell viability

(data not shown).21 Compound CD (Fig. 5A) both inhibited GT1b p7 activity in vitro and showed an equivalent antiviral effect to Rim, to which L20F virus was resistant (Fig. 5B,C). To our knowledge, CD is the first molecule designed entirely against a de novo molecular model to display an antiviral effect in learn more culture. GT3a 452 isolate p7 displays resistance to NN-DNJ in vitro and in culture.21 This provided an excellent basis to investigate whether IS targeted oligomerization and to identify resistance polymorphisms. DHPC induces oligomerization of IS-sensitive J4 p7 in vitro, inducing heptameric complexes equivalent to liposomes.31 We therefore assessed

whether IS or Rim blocked oligomerization SCH727965 of J4 and 452 p7. NN-DNJ abrogated J4 p7 oligomerization and channel activity, yet 452 p7 activity was insensitive to this drug and oligomerization was not affected (Fig. 6A). Rim did not affect oligomerization, but it inhibited channel activity in both cases, confirming separate modes of action for these inhibitor classes. Comparing NN-DNJ binding sites revealed variation between J4 and 452 (Fig. 1C), however alignment with other p7 sequences revealed an F25A polymorphism to be covariant with IS resistance. F25 is located on a predicted bulge in the p7 N-terminal helix, which may link with adjacent protomers, but is also predicted to interact with IS head groups (Fig. 1B). We previously showed that J4 F(22, 25, 26)/A p7 formed hyperactive channels

in vitro that retained Ama sensitivity.31 We therefore tested whether this mutant or F25A in isolation could rescue p7 oligomerization from NN-DNJ. Both J4 mutant proteins and JFH-1 F25A p7 were insensitive to NN-DNJ check in vitro and displayed hyperactive channel phenotypes, consistent with a more open-form channel structure (Fig. 6B). Native PAGE again correlated IS resistance with the formation of drug-resistant oligomeric complexes (Fig. 6C). Interestingly, the major species formed by JFH-1 F25A p7 oligomer migrated more rapidly than other proteins, yet was stable in the presence of NN-DNJ; some heptameric JFH-1 F25A protein was also apparent. All mutant proteins remained sensitive to Rim in vitro (data not shown). We next tested F25A in cell culture and, despite a modest decrease in particle production, the mutant was resistant to both NN-DNJ and N-nonyl deoxygalactonojirimycin (NN-DGJ), but not Rim (Fig. 6D).

Methods:  A prospective database was used to identify those patie

Methods:  A prospective database was used to identify those patients who were treated with either locoregional therapy (n = 128) or supportive care (n = 92). Survival analysis was performed

for groups matched by CLIP score at presentation. Comparison of important prognostic factors was undertaken and univariate and multivariate analysis was performed to assess determinants of survival. Results:  Use of locoregional therapies was only associated with a survival benefit in patients with a CLIP score of 1 or 2. In this group, the median survival in patients who received locoregional therapies was 25.0 months (95% confidence interval 22.7–27.4) compared with 8.9 months (95% confidence interval 7.3–10.5) for supportive care (P = 0.001). For patients Selleck BVD-523 with CLIP scores of 3 or greater, no survival benefit of locoregional therapies was observed. Multivariate analysis revealed locoregional intervention, CLIP score, tumor symptoms, α-fetoprotein level, bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase level as independent prognostic indicators. Conclusion:  Locoregional therapies should be targeted selleck chemical specifically to patients with non-advanced hepatocellular carcinoma as assessed

by validated scoring systems. Use of these therapies in patients with advanced disease does not appear to be associated with a survival benefit and may expose patients to unnecessary harm. “
“Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) decreases health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The present study was planned to investigate the impact of HRQOL of patients with chronic

hepatitis C (CHC) on the outcomes of therapy with pegylated interferon and ribavirin (RBV), in addition to IL28B polymorphisms. The present study enrolled 228 CHC patients and assessed their HRQOLs prospectively with the 36-item short-form health survey. The patients with CHC have lower physical HRQOL Histamine H2 receptor status than the general population (P = 0.037, the Z-test). The patients with advanced liver diseases exhibited further decreases in HRQOL (P = 0.036, Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient). The score of total HRQOL was significantly lower in the group with sustained virological response (SVR) to the therapy with pegylated interferon and RBV than the non-SVR group (P = 0.031, the Mann–Whitney U-test), with significantly lower scores of mental component and its comprising subscales in the SVR group. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that low HRQOL score ≤ 400 points was significantly associated with SVR (odds ratio = 2.4, P = 0.013), independently from high platelet counts, low HCV RNA, favorable single-nucleotide polymorphism type of IL28B, and HCV serotype 2. The patients with low HRQOL score will have significantly less decrease in HRQOL score by 4 weeks of the treatment than those with high HRQOL score at baseline (P = 0.0045).

PMA has been shown to phosphorylate and translocate MARCKS to lys

PMA has been shown to phosphorylate and translocate MARCKS to lysosome in rat hepatocytes.36

Studies in most other cell types suggest a role of MARCKS in the exocytosis and exocytotic insertion of membrane proteins. Thus, the phosphorylation of MARCKS has been implicated in neurotransmitter release,37 glucose-induced secretion in isolated rat pancreatic islets,38 the release of adrenocorticotropin in ovine anterior pituitary cells,39 thrombin-induced serotonin release from platelets,40 insulin-induced Glut4 translocation to the PM in rat skeletal muscle cells,41 and mucin secretion in bronchial epithelial cells.15 However, MARCKS Epigenetics Compound Library cell assay phosphorylation, most likely by PKCϵ, has also been suggested to be involved in basolateral fluid-phase endocytosis in T84 cells.19 MARCKS phosphorylation has also been

suggested to be involved in an abnormal endocytic pathway in Alzheimer disease.42 On the basis of these studies and the results of the present study, we suggest that MARCKS phosphorylation leads to endocytic retrieval Erastin manufacturer of MRP2 in hepatocytes. To our knowledge, this is the first study implicating MARCKS phosphorylation in membrane transporter retrieval in hepatocytes. The precise intracellular mechanisms by which MARCKS regulates endocytosis and exocytosis have not been fully elucidated.12, 43 The finding that MARCKS can bind directly to actin and crosslinks it to PM44 has led to the suggestion that actin is essential to the overall functioning

of MARCKS. The binding of MARCKS to the membrane requires the electrostatic interaction of basic (serine) residues of MARCKS in its effector domain with acidic lipids of the membrane and the hydrophobic insertion of myristate into the core of the membrane. Both of these interactions are necessary for significant membrane binding.12, 43, 44 When the serine residues in the effector domain of MARCKS are phosphorylated by PKC or replaced by alanine as in PD-MARCKS, the electrostatic interaction between MARCKS and the acidic lipids is abolished, and this results in the dissociation of MARCKS from the membrane. Because of the proximity of MARCKS phosphorylation sites to the actin binding site,45 MARCKS phosphorylation buy Paclitaxel also results in the release of actin and a local softening (disruption) of the actin cytoskeleton with increased plasticity and endocytosis.11, 12 Thus, it can be speculated that by binding and tethering actin, unphosphorylated MARCKS stabilizes MRP2 in the membrane, as has been suggested for other actin crosslinking proteins, radixin46, 47 and Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor 1.48 Consistent with this hypothesis is a recent study in rats showing that taurochenodeoxycholate-induced retrieval of MRP2 is associated with changes in the actin cytoskeleton.49 Because three serine residues are replaced by alanine in PD-MARCKS, such a mechanism can also explain decreased PM-MRP2 in cells transfected with PD-MARCKS (Fig.

1-3 There is evidence that previous HBV infection, marked only by

1-3 There is evidence that previous HBV infection, marked only by the presence of antibodies to HBV—notably hepatitis B core antibody

(anti-HBc) with or without hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs)—may also indicate persistent Ibrutinib solubility dmso HBV infection. Previous HBV infection has also been linked with progressive liver disease, particularly as a cofactor among patients with another form of underlying liver disease such as chronic hepatitis C or alcoholic liver disease. Prior studies have shown that the prevalence of occult HBV infection is higher in countries where HBV infection is prevalent, in patients with serological markers of previous HBV infection, and in patients who

have risk factors for HBV Nutlin-3a mw infection such as those with human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. What remains uncertain is the clinical significance of low-level, persistent HBV infection, especially among patients with another cause of liver disease. Several studies, mostly from Europe and Japan, have found a higher rate of occult HBV infection in patients with chronic HCV infection who have HCC compared with HCV-infected patients with no HCC.1-4 In some of these studies, the prevalence of occult HBV infection in HCV patients with HCC was as high as 60%-70%.2-4 However, data on the prevalence of occult HBV infection in HCV patients and the contribution of occult HBV to HCC in the United States are Dapagliflozin limited. The Hepatitis C Antiviral Long-term Treatment against Cirrhosis (HALT-C) Trial prospectively followed patients with chronic HCV infection and advanced hepatic fibrosis for clinical outcomes including HCC. All

the patients tested negative for HBsAg in the serum at enrollment. This large cohort provides an excellent opportunity to study the clinical significance of previous or occult HBV infection in patients with chronic HCV infection in the United States. The aims of this analysis were to compare the prevalence of previous and occult HBV infection in HALT-C patients who developed HCC and those who did not develop HCC. In addition, we assessed the demographics, risk factors for HCV infection, and laboratory and histological indicators of liver disease in HALT-C patients with and without previous and occult HBV infection. AFP, alpha-fetoprotein; anti-HBc, hepatitis B core antibody; anti-HBs, hepatitis B surface antibody; CI, confidence interval; HALT-C, Hepatitis C Antiviral Long-term Treatment against Cirrhosis; HBsAg, hepatitis B surface antigen; HBV, hepatitis B virus; HCC, hepatocellular carcinoma; HCV, hepatitis C virus; OR, odds ratio; PCR, polymerase chain reaction. The design of the HALT-C Trial has been described.