1% vs 10 6%) [15] However, population studies tend to enroll re

1% vs. 10.6%) [15]. However, population studies tend to enroll relatively healthier subjects in general, and this may be particularly true for AA participants. As a result, the difference in the health level between the study subjects and that of the general population may be exaggerated for AA subjects. We have observed that among women referred for bone densitometry at a university hospital with a large percentage of AA patients, the prevalence of vertebral fractures was similar in AA and CA women [16]. This may be due to a referral bias if AA women are referred for bone mineral density when their treating physician

has high suspicion for fractures while CA women are referred for screening purposes. Alternatively, the true prevalence of vertebral fractures in AA may be underestimated in the above-mentioned population studies, which may have preferentially recruited healthier subjects. Chest radiographs have previously selleck inhibitor been utilized to examine the under-reporting of vertebral fractures [9, 17, 18]

and can be used to estimate disease prevalence in subjects not selected for osteoporosis screening. To obtain an unbiased estimate of racial differences in vertebral fracture burden in subjects seeking medical care, we examined the prevalence of vertebral fractures on lateral chest radiographs obtained for routine clinical purposes. Methods All consecutive chest radiographs from women Atezolizumab concentration over the age of 60 were collected for the calendar years of 2005 and 2006 and sorted by medical record number (MRN). The first 600 MRNs from 2005 and the first 600 MRNs from 2006 were included in the study. Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase Electronic medical records were used to obtain clinical information for each patient whose radiograph was included in the analysis. The study was approved by the University of Chicago’s Institutional Review Board. Evaluation of radiographs The chest radiographs were available in digital form and accessed using Philips iSite v.

3.3.2 (Stentor). Evaluation of radiographs was done without knowledge of the race or other clinical characteristics of the patients. Vertebral fractures were classified using Genant’s semi-quantitative scale [19], which defines a grade 1 fracture as a loss of vertebral height of 20–25%, grade 2 as a loss of 26–40%, and grade 3 as a loss of greater than 40%. A spinal deformity index (SDI) was calculated for each patient as the sum of the fracture grades of all vertebrae from that patient [20]. Patients with an SDI of at least 2 were classified as having a fracture. Information from the medical records Electronic medical records were used to ascertain the race of the patient, when available, as well as the presence of conditions or use of medications that may be associated with an increased risk of fractures including: a history of cancer, use of systemic (but not inhaled) glucocorticoids, rheumatoid arthritis, organ transplantation, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and cigarette smoking.

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