3% in UC and 3.6% in CD patients.70 Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Diseases There were two reports available on pediatric IBDs in Iran: one a hospital-based study and the other a retrospective study.21,71 The former underlined pancolitis as the most common involved site (69.6%) in UC on colonoscopy and reported a higher M/F ratio in both UC (0.6/0.4) and CD (0.58/0.42) Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical patients. In the latter, the most common colonoscopic feature was erythema in UC and ulcer in CD. In a study conducted on Asian IBD pediatric patients in British Colombia in Canada,72 a pattern similar to
that of Iranian children vis-à-vis the M/F ratio (male predominance) was observed in both UC and CD patients. In addition, extensive Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical colitis constituted the most frequent form of involvement in the patients. Table 4 depicts a comparison of the epidemiological data between Asian and Iranian IBD patients. Table 4 Comparison of epidemiological aspects of inflammatory bowel diseases between Asia and Iran Conclusion
The rate of IBDs has increased significantly in Asian countries during the last decade. The most important differences between Asia and Iran in Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical regard to epidemiological aspects are in EIMs, family history, and NOD2/CARD15 mutation in CD patients and CTLA-4 gene polymorphism in UC patients. A precise, well-designed, multi-centric, population-based, prospective epidemiologic study must be performed in Asian countries, especially in Iran, in order to shed sufficient light on the incidence and prevalence of IBDs in this region. Acknowledgment We would like to thank the Gastroenterohepatology and INK 128 supplier Colorectal Research
Centers and Mrs. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Dehbozorgian for their cooperation. Conflict of Interest: None declared.
Reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS) is a non-immune mediated type of asthma-like disease characterized by Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the immediate onset of symptoms of cough, chest tightness, audible wheeze, and breathlessness after a toxic single exposure to an agent with irritating properties in the atmosphere in the form of dust, vapor, fume, or smoke.1 More than 30 different agents are known to cause RADS.2,3 The most common agents implicated in the causation of RADS include chlorine, toluene diisocyanate, and oxides of nitrogen.2 The Brazilian standard describes porcelain tile as any ceramic PDK4 tile made of clay, feldspar, and other inorganic raw materials that is either pressed or extruded and contains water absorption of less than 0.5%. However, porcelain tile dust as a cause of RADS has not been previously reported. We present a 45-year-old male laborer with an acute onset of asthma after his first time heavy exposure to porcelain tile dust within 5 hours of exposure whose symptoms persisted for 5 months after the incident. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of RADS as a result of porcelain tile dust exposure.