Trial design was

similar to that described above and last

Trial design was

similar to that described above and lasted 12 to 24 weeks. Patients with diabetes showed a statistically significant mean percentage increase in walking distance (51.4%) when compared to placebo (32.6%). No statistical difference was found between the percentage change in maximal walking distance in the diabetic patients (51.4%) when compared to the non-diabetic patients (60.6%) treated with cilostazol. The authors examined the response to cilostazol based on baseline absolute claudication distance (ACD); they found that the response in non-diabetic patients was linear with greater response in those with better baseline function. However, this pattern was not seen in the diabetic cohort. Diabetic patients in the first quartile (ACD <96m) responded best to cilostazol with a 34.4% (95% CI 6.68–62.16%) improvement from baseline PS-341 order (n=59), in the second quartile (ACD 97–141m)

5.5% (95% CI -30.91–41.93%), in the third quartile (ACD 142–233m) 23% (95% CI -7.82–53.82%), and in the fourth quartile (ACD >233m) a 17.2% (95% CI -16.33–50.69%) change from baseline was seen. The adverse event profile was similar in the diabetic and non-diabetic patients. A recent randomised, double-blinded trial assessed the vascular and biochemical effects of cilostazol compared to mTOR inhibitor placebo in diabetic patients with peripheral arterial disease.4 They recruited 26 patients between the ages of 30 and 90 years with type 2 diabetes and intermittent claudication. Twelve patients were randomised to receive cilostazol 100mg twice daily and 14 to placebo. The groups were assessed at baseline, six and 24 weeks. Walking assessment was matched at baseline and there was a non-significant trend for improvement in the cilostazol group at 24 weeks with the initial claudication distance improving by 21.1% compared to -4.4% in the placebo group. Lipid profiles were not significantly different between groups at baseline. However, in the cilostazol group there was a significant reduction in serum cholesterol (p=0.007) and triglycerides many (p=0.005), and a significant increase in HDL

cholesterol (p=0.047) at 24 weeks when compared to baseline. There was no significant difference between ankle-brachial indices, arterial compliance or HbA1c in the cilostazol compared to the placebo group at baseline, six or 24 weeks. Cilostazol improves walking distance in patients with intermittent claudication and has desirable effects on lipid profiles. Diabetic patients with intermittent claudication have a higher risk of the complications of PAD and of cardiovascular events. The overall response to cilostazol in diabetic patients was not significantly different compared to non-diabetic patients but, interestingly, there appears to be a different pattern of response with the most severely affected diabetic patients gaining most benefit.

Interestingly, as well, whereas IS rats show increased levels of

Interestingly, as well, whereas IS rats show increased levels of anxiety in both the social

interaction test (Christianson et al., 2009, 2010) and learning of a conditioned fear response (Maier et al., 1993; Baratta et al., 2007), they show the same anxiety of ES rats to the odor of a ferret (Baratta et al., 2007). Although the latter data show that the anxiogenic effects of uncontrollable stress depend on the model being tested, Palbociclib the present EPM and FST data make it unlikely that an increase in either the anxiety or depression baseline levels had occurred by the time we observed the major effects on DPAG-evoked defensive behaviors. In contrast, studies employing the elevated T-maze detected effects either anxiogenic or panicolytic the day after the exposure to uncontrollable stress (De Paula Soares et al., 2011). In particular, whereas the anxiety-like behavior (avoidance of open arms) was enhanced 24 h after the exposure to IS, FST or restraint stress, the

panic-like behavior (escape from open arms) was significantly attenuated. The latter effect bears a close resemblance to the attenuation of the DPAG-evoked escape response in the IS group. In fact, although the DPAG-evoked trotting and galloping were only slightly or moderately attenuated in the FS and ES groups (threshold increases of 8–30%), these behaviors were Selleckchem Etoposide robustly attenuated in the IS group (threshold increases of 30–57%). Notably, as well, whereas the thresholds of DPAG-evoked responses of ES rats had partly

recovered 7 days after one-way escape training, thresholds of IS rats remained high or were even further increased. The lack Meloxicam of changes in the thresholds of DPAG-evoked behaviors of non-handled rats suggests, on the other hand, that the effects in the FS group were due to handling rather than to the repeated exposure to intracranial stimuli. Therefore, although the recent studies suggest that the lasting effects of IS require periodic re-exposure to IS context cues (Maier, 2001; Dwivedi et al., 2004, 2005; Maier & Watkins, 2005), the enduring IS effects on DPAG-evoked responses are reminiscent of earlier studies in which a single IS session produced >1 week of deficits in bar-pressing escape in a homotypical context (Seligman et al., 1975), and a much longer depression of spontaneous activity in running-wheel and open-field heterotypical contexts (Desan et al., 1988; Maier et al., 1990; Van Dijken et al., 1992a,b). Most importantly, however, DPAG-evoked defensive behaviors were inhibited in spite of the striking differences in either the aversive stimulus (foot-shock vs. intracranial stimulus) or context (shuttle-box vs. open-field) of escape behaviors. Accordingly, IS inhibition of DPAG-evoked responses cannot be attributed to either a context conditioning or the stimulus sensitisation to repeated exposures of the same stressor.

Ongoing support of The Cognitive Neurophysiology Laboratory is pr

Ongoing support of The Cognitive Neurophysiology Laboratory is provided through a grant from the Sheryl and Daniel R. Tishman Charitable FDA approved Drug Library chemical structure Foundation. All authors declare no conflict of interest, financial or otherwise, that would have impacted the work reported in this document. Abbreviations AD analog to digital ADI Autism Diagnostic Interview ADOS Autism Diagnostic Observation Scale ASD autism spectrum disorder

MUSIC multiple signal classification pSTS posterior superior temporal sulcus SBRI ‘Stereotyped Behaviors and Restricted Interests’ SNR signal-to-noise ratio TD typically developing VEP visual evoked potential VESPA visual evoked spread spectrum analysis WASI Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence “
“Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can produce a myriad of deficits. Unfortunately, affected individuals may also be exposed to the stress of an adverse home environment,

contributing to deficits of attentional processes that are the hallmark of optimal executive function. Male offspring of ad-libitum-fed Control (Con), Pairfed (PF), and PAE dams were randomly assigned to either a 5-day period of variable chronic MK-1775 manufacturer mild stress (CMS) or no CMS in adolescence. In adulthood, rats were trained in a non-match to sample task (T-maze), followed by extensive assessment in the five-choice serial reaction time task. Once rats acquired the five-choice serial reaction time task (stable accuracy), they were tested in three challenge conditions: (i) increased sustained attention, (ii) selective attention and, (iii) varying doses of d-amphetamine, an indirect dopamine and norepinephrine agonist. At birth and throughout the study, PAE offspring showed reduced Casein kinase 1 body weight. Moreover, although PAE animals were similar to Con animals

in task acquisition, they were progressively less proficient with transitions to shorter stimulus durations (decreased accuracy and increased omissions). Five days of adolescent CMS increased basal corticosterone levels in adolescence and disrupted cognitive performance in adulthood. Further, CMS augmented PAE-related disturbances in acquisition and, to a lesser extent, also disrupted attentional processes in Con and PF animals. Following task acquisition, challenges unmasked persistent attentional difficulties resulting from both PAE and adolescent CMS. In conclusion, PAE, adolescent CMS, and their interaction produced unique behavioural profiles that suggest vulnerability in select neurobiological processes at different stages of development. “
“The tumor suppressor protein p53 (Trp53) and the cell cycle inhibitor p27 Kip1 (Cdknb1) have both been implicated in regulating proliferation of adult subventricular zone (aSVZ) cells.

In particular, evidence for the functional integration of new neu

In particular, evidence for the functional integration of new neurons born in ‘non-neurogenic’ zones is controversial. Considering the promise of adult neurogenesis for regenerative medicine, we posit that differences in the extent, regional occurrence and completion of adult neurogenesis need to be considered from a species-specific perspective. In this review, we provide examples underscoring that the mechanisms of adult neurogenesis cannot simply be generalized to all mammalian species. Despite numerous similarities, there are

distinct differences, notably in neuronal maturation, survival and functional integration in existing synaptic circuits, as well as in the nature and localization of neural precursor cells. We also propose a more appropriate use of terminology VEGFR inhibitor to better describe these differences and their relevance for brain plasticity under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. In conclusion, we emphasize the need for further analysis of adult neurogenesis in diverse mammalian species to fully grasp the spectrum of variation of this adaptative mechanism in the adult CNS. “
“In Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus

auratus), the expression of reproductive behavior requires the perception of social odors. The behavioral response to these odors is mediated by a network of ventral forebrain nuclei, including the posterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (pBNST). Previous studies have tested the role of the pBNST in reproductive behavior, but the use of large, fiber-damaging lesions in these studies make it difficult to attribute post-lesion buy FK506 deficits to the pBNST specifically. Thus, the current study used discrete, excitotoxic lesions of the pBNST to test the role of the pBNST in opposite-sex odor preference and copulatory behavior in both sexually-naive and

sexually-experienced males. Lesions of the pBNST decreased sexually-naive males’ investigation of volatile female odors, resulting in an elimination of opposite-sex odor preference. This elimination of preference was not due to a sensory deficit, as males with pBNST lesions were able to discriminate between odors. ifoxetine When, however, subjects were given sexual experience prior to pBNST lesions, their preference for volatile opposite-sex odors remained intact post-lesion. Similarly, when sexually-naive or sexually-experienced subjects were allowed to contact the social odors during the preference test, lesions of the pBNST decreased males’ investigation of female odors but did not eliminate preference for opposite-sex odors, regardless of sexual experience. Finally, lesions of the pBNST delayed the copulatory sequence in sexually-naive, but not sexually-experienced, males such that they took longer to mount, intromit, ejaculate and display long intromissions. Together, these results demonstrate that the pBNST plays a unique and critical role in both appetitive and consummatory aspects of male reproductive behaviors.

In contrast to lactoferrin, desferrioxamine and deferiprone, DIBI

In contrast to lactoferrin, desferrioxamine and deferiprone, DIBI provided almost complete inhibition of the growth of both C. albicans and C. vini over a 4-day incubation period. Candida albicans has been reported to use iron from the ferriproteins haemin, haemoglobin and myoglobin (Han, 2005), and to acquire iron from transferrin (Knight et al., 2005). However, the slight increase of the maximum specific

growth yields observed in the presence of some chelators in this study was not significant enough to support chelator-assisted iron acquisition. In a long-term study with reduced, subinhibitory concentrations (0.17 g L−1), DIBI did allow delayed and gradual growth of both yeasts, which was comparable to inhibition by EDTA for C. albicans and to BPS in C. vini. In contrast to EDTA and BPS, which are known to readily chelate other transition metals (Ueno et al., 1992), DIBI was shown to be iron-selective and its inhibitory activity was shown to be selleck Fe reversible. Accordingly, DIBI appeared to be a more potent iron scavenger than any of the other clinically

relevant chelators examined. This work presents the first evidence of the iron requirements of C. vini, a nonpathogenic food spoilage organism, and the inhibition of RXDX-106 C. vini and the opportunistic pathogen C. albicans by several strong chelators. The differences observed with respect to the ability of C. vini and C. albicans to grow under iron-restricted conditions were consistent with the respective environmental niches and pathogenicity. Interleukin-3 receptor The present work provides a foundation for future studies that may investigate the possible synergistic effects of iron withdrawal in combination with

antifungal preservative addition. The authors thank Chelation Partners for supplying the FEC-1 chelating adsorbent and the DIBI chelator. “
“Sinorhizobium meliloti associates with Medicago and Melilotus species to develop nitrogen-fixing symbioses. The agricultural relevance of these associations, the worldwide distribution of acid soils, and the remarkable acid sensitivity of the microsymbiont have all stimulated research on the responses of the symbionts to acid environments. We show here that an adaptive acid-tolerance response (ATR) can be induced in S. meliloti, as shown previously for Sinorhizobium medicae, when the bacteria are grown in batch cultures at the slightly acid pH of 6.1. In marked contrast, no increased tolerance to hydrogen ions is obtained if rhizobia are grown in a chemostat under continuous cultivation at the same pH. The adaptive ATR appears as a complex process triggered by an increased hydrogen-ion concentration, but operative only if other – as yet unknown – concomitant factors that depend on the culture conditions are present (although not provided under continuous cultivation). Although the stability of the ATR and its influence on acid tolerance has been characterized in rhizobia, no data have been available on the effect of the adapted state on symbiosis.

Clp proteases

including ClpA act as molecular chaperones

Clp proteases

including ClpA act as molecular chaperones with a similar function as DnaK/DnaJ (Wickner et al., 1994). It is likely that the up-regulation of DnaJ-class molecular chaperone in CSM2 mutant is due to the substitution of the partial Clp protease function by DnaJ when Clp protease is dysfunctional. Further, our metabolomic analysis of the Clp protease mutant identified down-regulation of amino acid and oligosaccharide transporters that are part of ABC transporter pathways (Table 2). The mechanism is likely to be similar to that observed in Mycobacterium tuberculosis under hypoxia, where Clp proteases degrade the factors that inhibit DNA replication and transcription to initiate the synthesis of amino acids during stressful conditions (Sherrid et al., 2010). Changes in the levels of TCA cycle enzymes in response to copper identified by the metabolomic analysis (Table 2) were confirmed by the Doxorubicin proteomic analysis with up-regulation of ketol-acid reductoisomerase, which participates

in the production of CoA (Table 1). In addition, down-regulation of MalR, a transcriptional regulatory protein for malate and citrate metabolism (Table 1) under copper stress would result in the accumulation of malate and citrate, the intermediate products in TCA cycle (Papa et al., 2009). Higher levels of malate allow the organism to cope with oxidative stress caused selleck by copper toxicity, by producing more NADPH, an important antioxidant (Singh et al., 2007). Citrate is a metabolite involved in the sequestration of aluminum and the increase of

citrate accumulation Resveratrol was previously shown in P. fluorescens grown under aluminum stress (Mailloux et al., 2008). Our results suggest that citrate is involved in the sequestration of copper. Based on our results, we propose a model for the response to toxic levels of copper in Pseudomonas sp. TLC6-6.5-4 (Fig. 4). High copper concentrations reduce its cell size, which decreases the amount of copper bound on the cell surface. In addition, smaller cells need less energy for maintenance under copper stress. CopA and lipoprotein mediate sequestration and efflux of copper outside the cytoplasm. Heat shock proteins including Clp protease and DnaJ-class molecular chaperone either degrade the damaged proteins or prevent their irreversible aggregation under copper stress. Furthermore, Clp protease is directly involved in copper resistance by up-regulation of amino acid transporters, proteins related to oxidative stress and proline accumulation. This organism maintains a fine metabolic balance to enable the cells to survive in environment with high copper concentration by increasing amino acid production and regulating TCA cycle. The authors gratefully thank J. Lutz and W. He for technical assistance with proteomic experiments and GC-MS analysis. We also thank R. Shaik for his help on proteomic and metabolomic data analysis. “
“Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Typhimurium are closely related serovars. However, S.

001, rank-sum = 67) higher values (mean = 133) than those with l

001, rank-sum = 67) higher values (mean = 1.33) than those with low relative scores (mean = 0.6). Taken together, these findings indicate that the peripheral Full-Range VESPA P1 amplitude and clinical measures of unusual sensory interest are closely related.

Examining the waveforms suggested that that the timeframe around the P1 component might be the most informative regarding differences between ASD and TD children. As the channels selected for depicting the waveforms represented only a very small subset of the information obtained in the experiments, we also analysed the topographical distribution of activity in the Talazoparib in vitro P1 timeframe. For three of the four VESPA conditions, with the exception of the peripheral Magno VESPA, the topographic distribution of activity was marked by a single midline distribution over occipital scalp, while the VEP response was characterized by bilateral occipital–parietal

foci (Fig. 5A). The finding that the VESPA P1 amplitude was more constrained over central occipital areas (Fig. 5B and C) is fully in line with previous studies in adult participants (Lalor et al., 2012; Murphy NVP-BEZ235 et al., 2012). The analysis of P1 topographies showed that, for each experimental condition, the topographical patterns of activation were highly similar between ASD and TD children. For peripheral stimulation, the amplitudes in the P1 timeframe over occipito-parietal areas were generally larger in the ASD group. The topographies indicated that early visual cortical areas have increased response amplitudes for peripheral stimuli in children with ASD. The current study employed different types of low-level visual acetylcholine stimuli. The Magno VESPA stimuli were designed based on prior knowledge about characteristics of magnocellular neurons. To confirm that the stimuli were

strongly biased towards activating the dorsal pathway, we localized the visual activation for centrally presented Full-Range and Magno VESPA stimuli using the MUSIC technique. The pattern of current sources for the P1 component of the VESPA was the same for both ASD and TD children. While the Full-Range VESPA stimuli activated regions around the occipital pole, we found current sources to be stronger in areas more dorsal for the Magno stimuli (Fig. 6). The MNI coordinates of the peak activity in the MUSIC map for the Full-Range stimuli were x = 3, y = −98, z = 5 for the TD and x = 13, y = −97, z = 5 for the ASD group. In the case of the Magno stimuli the MNI coordinates were x = −7, y = −76, z = 18 for the TD and x = −11, y = −80, z = 34 for the ASD group. This clear shift of current sources towards more dorsal areas for the Magno stimuli provided evidence that these stimuli biased the response toward the dorsal stream.

The initial year-on-year increase in overall supply reported by o

The initial year-on-year increase in overall supply reported by others[17, 24] appears to have stabilised 4 years post-reclassification while having little impact on prescription items over the entire study period. Despite a temporal relationship between OTC selleck screening library ophthalmic chloramphenicol supply and items dispensed on prescription the appropriateness of supplies from community pharmacies remains

unknown. The benefits and risks of having ophthalmic chloramphenicol available OTC and the impact of updated practice guidance on its prescribing OTC need to be studied further to better understand its current, high level of use. The Author(s) declare(s) that they have no conflicts of interest to disclose. This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors. We are thankful to IMS Health for supplying the pharmacy Gefitinib concentration wholesale data and we are also grateful to Dr Karen Hodson (Cardiff University) for critiquing the draft paper and providing helpful comments. Some data were presented at the 40th European Symposium of Clinical Pharmacy in Dublin on 19 October 2011.

Abstract one: Supply of ophthalmic chloramphenicol in primary care in Wales 5 years after reclassification to over-the-counter availability. Abstract two: Investigation of a correlation between over-the-counter sales and primary care prescriptions for chloramphenicol eye drops. All authors had complete access to the study data that support the publication. HD conceived the study, participated in its design, performed the statistical analysis and drafted the manuscript. DNJ participated in the design of the study and helped to draft the manuscript.

RW conceived the study, acquired data and helped to draft the manuscript. “
“Objective  The aim of the study was to explore, in the Malaysian general population: knowledge and beliefs of the characteristics in general of medication-related side effects and side effects associated with different types of medicines; behaviour related to the safe use of drugs before and after taking a medication; and behaviour in the event of a medication-related side effect. Methods  A 24-item self-administered questionnaire was developed and used to survey the general public living or working Ribonucleotide reductase in suburban Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Eight hundred questionnaires were distributed, face to face, by researchers using quota sampling. Respondents’ knowledge, belief and behaviour were analysed and correlated with demographics, medical history and experience of side effects. Key findings  Six hundred and ten respondents completed the questionnaire giving a response rate of 76.3%. The mean knowledge score for the respondents was 18.4 ± 3.6 out of the maximum possible score of 26. Educational level and experience of side effect had an influence on the knowledge score obtained.

, 1994; Canton et al, 2001; Van Damme et al, 2003; Tortarolo et

, 1994; Canton et al., 2001; Van Damme et al., 2003; Tortarolo et al., 2006).

In addition, intrathecal or intraspinal administration of AMPA receptor agonists induced motor neuron degeneration (Hugon et al., 1989; Ikonomidou et al., 1996; Corona & Tapia, 2007), and inhibition of glutamate uptake resulted in motor neuron Selleck PF01367338 death in organotypic spinal cord cultures by overstimulation of AMPA receptors (Rothstein et al., 1993; Saroff et al., 2000). Motor neurons appear to be very sensitive to excitotoxicity for several reasons (Fig. 4). They combine the presence of a high number of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors (Carriedo et al., 1996; Van Den Bosch et al., 2000) with a low calcium-buffering capacity due to the low expression level of calcium-binding proteins (Alexianu et al., 1994). An immediate consequence of the lower amount of calcium-buffering proteins is that their mitochondria play a prominent role in calcium metabolism (Grosskreutz et al., 2010). AMPA receptors are tetramers composed of a variable association of four subunits (GluR1–4) and the calcium permeability of the receptor is determined

by the GluR2 subunit. Receptors with GluR2 have a very low calcium Selleckchem PD0325901 permeability compared to GluR2-lacking receptors. The calcium impermeability of GluR2-containing AMPA receptors is explained by the presence of a positively charged arginine instead of the genetically encoded neutral glutamine. This arginine residue at the Q/R site is introduced by the editing of GluR2 pre-mRNA, a process that is virtually complete under normal conditions. 17-DMAG (Alvespimycin) HCl Motor neurons express low levels of the GluR2 subunit, leading to a higher calcium permeability of the AMPA receptor and an increased sensitivity to

excitotoxicity (Greig et al., 2000; Heath et al., 2002; Van Damme et al., 2002; Kawahara et al., 2003). The role of GluR2 in motor neuron degeneration appears quite important. Editing of the GluR2 mRNA has been reported to be disturbed in sporadic ALS patients (Kawahara et al., 2004), suggesting an increased calcium permeability of their AMPA receptors and thus increased vulnerability to excitotoxicity. Overexpression of an ‘uneditable’ GluR2 subunit resulted in late-onset motor neuron degeneration in the mouse (Feldmeyer et al., 1999). Deleting the GluR2-encoding gene in mutant SOD1 mice accelerated motor neuron degeneration (Van Damme et al., 2005), while providing motor neurons with extra GluR2 increased significantly the life span of the mutant SOD1 mouse model (Tateno et al., 2004). Astrocytes from the ventral spinal cord determine the expression level of the GluR2 subunit in motor neurons and thus protect the motor neuron from excitotoxicity (Van Damme et al., 2007). The presence of mutant SOD1 in astrocytes abolished this protective effect, which may contribute to the non-cell autonomous nature of mutant SOD1-induced motor neuron degeneration.

, 2007) Cloning and the heterogeneous expression of crtI from Rb

, 2007). Cloning and the heterogeneous expression of crtI from Rba. azotoformans were performed to understand the product pattern of CrtI. A 1557 bp crtI gene was amplified via PCR from the Rba. azotoformans CGMCC 6086 genome with primers Ra-If and Ra-Ir (Table 1). A 518-amino acid protein was encoded with a predicted molecular

mass of 57.28 kDa. The crtI gene was inserted into pET22b and transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3). The ratio of CrtI to total screening assay E. coli protein was approximately 7–10% after induction with IPTG. The subunit molecular mass of 57 kDa determined via SDS-PAGE (Fig. 3) was consistent with the predicted molecular mass. The product pattern of CrtI from

Rba. azotoformans was examined in vivo by co-transforming plasmid pET22b-I with plasmid pACYCDuet-EB into the E. coli BL21 (DE3). The transformant acquired a red color in LB culture after induction with IPTG. After cultivation for 5 h in LB medium with 0.5 mM IPTG, the recombinant E. coli produced three carotenoids (Fig. 4a) identified by molecular mass and absorption spectra as neurosporene, lycopene, and 3,4-didehydrolycopene Opaganib (Fig. S3). Neurosporene has a relative molecular mass of 538.4 and three absorption maxima at 416, 440, and 469 nm. Lycopene has a relative molecular mass of 536.4 and three absorption maxima at 444, 472, and 504 nm. Meanwhile, 3,4-didehydrolycopene has a relative molecular mass of 534.4 and three absorption maxima at 469, 496, and 528 nm. After cultivation for 24 h, the relative (-)-p-Bromotetramisole Oxalate contents of neurosporene and lycopene in recombinant E. coli were approximately 23% and 75%, respectively, whereas 3,4-didehydrolycopene almost disappeared (Fig. 4b). This in vivo result showed that CrtI from Rba. azotoformans

CGMCC 6086 could produce three-step desaturated neurosporene and four-step desaturated lycopene as major products, together with small amounts of five-step desaturated 3,4-didehydrolycopene. The present study is the first to report that 3,4-didehydrolycopene could be produced by CrtI from Rhodobacter. CrtI would be a three-step phytoene desaturase in situ because carotenoids of the spheroidene series were synthesized in Rba. azotoformans CGMCC 6086. Therefore, the formation of lycopene and 3,4-didehydrolycopene in recombinant E. coli were probably due to neurosporene accumulation caused by the lack of hydroxyneurosporene synthase (CrtC) and CrtI kinetics. In a crtC deletion mutant of Rba. azotoformans CGMCC 6086 obtained via EMS and LiCl mutagenesis, carotenoid products contained approximately 90% neurosporene and 10% lycopene (data not shown). The kinetics could also affect product patterns of CrtI. CrtI from Rvi. gelatinosus and P.