The cultures were incubated for 24 h before the medium superna ta

The cultures were incubated for 24 h before the medium superna tants were aliqouted and frozen in 70 C for later analysis. Cytokines were measured with a suspension array ana lytical platform. One ampoule of each supernatant was thawed on ice, and the amount of total protein was measured in each supernatant using a protein assay kit before levels of TNF a, IL 1b, IL 6 and IL 8 were measured using a 4 plex cytokine assay. The samples were run in a 14 dilution in duplicates. Likewise, a multiplex MMP assay was used to measure the levels of the metalloproteases MMP 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 12 and 13 using a Bio Plex 200 analyser. The samples were run in a 14 dilution in duplicates. Statistical analysis Data were analysed using SPSS statistical software version 16. 0.
Cytokines and metalloproteases were examined for statistical sig nificance using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. All data are expressed as meanstandard error selleck chemicals of the mean. A P value less than 0. 05 denoted the presence of a statistically significant difference. Results Chondrocyte cultures It has been demonstrated that chondrocytes gradually lose their chondrogenic properties during serial passage in monolayer. To ensure a chondrogenic pheno type, cells were immunolabelled for aggrecan and col lagen type II after propagation in culture corresponding to the time preceding in vitro experiments. As judged by these parameters, the chondrogenic phenotype was preserved. ChemR23 and chemerin expression in human articular chondrocytes ChemR23 expression by RT PCR To clarify whether cultured human chondrocytes express ChemR23, mRNA isolated from six different cell cultures were analysed for ChemR23 transcripts by RT PCR.
Figure 2a shows the ChemR23 transcripts in chondrocyte cultures from two patients subjected to total knee arthro plasty due to severe osteoarthritis. informative post The PCR products detected by gel electrophoresis revealed that mRNA cor responding to the 917 bp transcript of the ChemR23 was present. The APRT primers were designed to give an 800 bp band in case of contami nation with genomic DNA, whereas the presence of a 300 bp band would correspond to the mRNA transcript for the APRT gene. As shown in the figure, genomic DNA was not detected and both controls were negative. The 917 bp transcript was identified in all the tested cultures three patients subjected to ACT due to cartilage lesion and another three patients suffering from severe osteoarthritis. Sequencing of the PCR pro ducts confirmed that they were transcripts for ChemR23 and APRT as judged by information obtained sb431542 chemical structure from the GeneBank. Chemerin expression by RT PCR To detect the presence of chemerin in chondrocytes, mRNA isolated from two individual cell cultures was analysed for prochemerin transcripts using two differ ent primer sets.

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