This phenomenon resulted from the high viscous alginate matrix to

This phenomenon resulted from the high viscous alginate matrix to retard the fusion of bubbles. Figure 3 Alginate bubbles with different NaBH 4 concentrations. (A and E) 1 mM NaBH4; (B and F) 5 mM NaBH4; (C and G) 10 mM NaBH4; (D and H) 20 mM NaBH4. Alginate in (A to D) and (E to H) are 150 and 350 cp,

respectively. All AZD1208 in vitro scale bars are 2 mm. Reduction reaction of Pt salts by reducing agents such as borohydrides and citrates is one of the convenient methods to prepare Pt NPs [38]. This study demonstrates a proof-of-concept approach for encapsulating the Pt NPs and bubbles into alginate particles utilizing simple reduction and hydrolysis reactions. Produced Pt [email protected] bubbles combined the characteristics of Pt NPs and

bubbles. The composite bubble particles can provide wide applications, such as smart vehicles for ultrasound-mediated imaging and targeted drug delivery, and effective absorbers and catalysts for decomposing pollutants. In the future, this proposed strategy to formulate Pt [email protected] bubbles can also be applied for synthesis of other composite materials. Characterization Figure 4 shows SEM images of Pt [email protected] bubbles. The exterior and interior morphologies of alginate particles obtained from different NaBH4 concentration are compared. In absence of NaBH4, there is no bubbles formation and the morphology is smooth and intact. For 10 and 20 mM NaBH4, ridges and cavities are found at particle surface and interior, showing entrapped bubbles. Figure 4 SEM images of alginate bubbles with different NaBH 4 concentrations. Surface (A to Selleck Ipatasertib C) and cross-section (D to F). (A and D) 0 mM NaBH4; (B and E) 10 mM NaBH4; (C and F) 20 mM NaBH4. The TEM images shown in Figure 5 with different magnifications reveal that synthesized Pt NPs were nearly spherical and well dispersed in the Ca-alginate particle. The electron diffraction pattern of Pt NPs were indexed as (111), (220), and (222), indicating the polycrystalline characteristic. Figure 6 shows the XRD pattern of

synthesized Pt NPs. Four distinct peaks at 39.6, 46.1, and 67.9 correspond to the crystal planes (111), (200), and (220) of cubic Pt NP structure, respectively. This result agrees with the finding in the electron diffraction data. Figure 7 is the Raman spectrum of different Phosphoglycerate kinase Pt substrates. There are different Raman patterns for Pt4+ and Pt. Compared to nonionic Pt, ionic Pt4+ shows more splits between 300 cm−1 and 350 cm−1. The Raman pattern of Pt NPs agrees with Pt [email protected] bubbles, and Pt4+ is consistent with [email protected] solution. Figure 5 TEM images and the electron diffraction pattern of Pt nanoparticles. (A-C). TEM images of Pt nanoparticles with different magnifications. (D) Electron diffraction pattern of Pt nanoparticles. Figure 6 XRD patterns of [email protected] particles prepared from different alginate. Figure 7 Raman patterns of different Pt compounds.

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