[1, 2] First described in 2002, there have been only 250 cases re

[1, 2] First described in 2002, there have been only 250 cases reported in the literature over the past decade. An uncommon disease, the pathophysiology of NH has not yet been clearly identified; specifically, the exact mechanism – either central or peripheral – by which this pain manifests. The localized, sharply delineated borders of the painful area seen in NH suggest a peripherally mediated pain mechanism.[1] Selleck Cyclopamine However, the lack of benefit with localized anesthetic nerve

blocks, as well as the topographical involvement of areas supplied by multiple cranial nerves or areas spanning the midline, suggests a centrally mediated mechanism.[3] Additionally, patients with NH may either suffer from a remitting and relapsing course (similar to what is observed in cluster headaches), a continuous pattern of pain, or a remitting pattern that evolves into continuous (unremitting) pain. The cluster-like find more pattern suggests a central pain mechanism, while unremitting pain is consistent with a peripheral pain mechanism. We offer for consideration a possible association between the temporal quality of NH (either continuous or episodic in nature) and the relative response to commonly used medications in the treatment of NH as significant

indicators for delineating the possible mechanism behind NH pain. In June 2012, a 47-year-old female presented with symptoms of unremitting headache. She reported initially experiencing these headaches periodically MCE nearly 7 years ago but had a period of relief until the headaches returned 2

years ago. She described the headache as burning with occasional throbbing and localized to the left frontal region of her head. She was able to clearly outline the affected area: perfectly circular and estimated to be about the size of a half-dollar. The headaches were of mild-to-moderate intensity, and the pain associated with the headaches was continuous and somewhat disabling. There was no known history of trauma to the area, and the patient’s past medical history was significant only for asthma. She did not identify worsening of the pain during any particular part of the day, nor did she note any change with touch, position, coughing, exertion, or ingestion of certain foods/caffeine. She also denied having any of the following symptoms associated with her headaches: nausea; vomiting; double vision; sensitivity to light, sound, or smell; lacrimation; rhinorrhea; conjunctival injection; or any focal neurological signs. The patient tried Excedrin without relief. Physical exam was benign: the patient exhibited full range of visual fields and acuity, there was no papilledema observed on fundoscopy, extraocular movements were intact, and neurological exam was within normal limits. Pain in the localized region was not reproducible on exam.

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