This technique is by far the most successful NGS method to sequence the P. falciparum genome. Many variations of the technique ITF2357 mouse were
developed specifically for the sequencing of the (A + T)-rich genome of the malaria parasite (6–8) (Figure 1). Over the last couple of years only, many studies have used Illumina®’s NGS technology to identify SNPs and other mutations linked to drug resistance in the murine malaria parasite P. chabaudi (9,10) and the human malaria parasite P. vivax (11). Other analyses have contributed to the characterization of the P. falciparum transcriptome with the discovery of new splicing events (12–14) and transcription start sites (15). Finally, Illumina®’s NGS technology was used to discover atypical features of P. falciparum’s chromatin (6,16)
and various epigenetic events (7). Currently, the future of high-throughput Selleckchem Anti-infection Compound Library sequencing seems to be leaning towards single-cell sequencing applications. Going further, third-generation sequencing (TGS) technologies propose to use single molecules as direct templates for sequencing (techniques so far under development at Helicos Biosciences and Pacific Biosciences). These TGS technologies should simplify the sample preparation procedure, avoid the bias introduce by DNA amplification and library preparation and be even more affordable than their predecessors. Nevertheless, the power of high-throughput Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II sequencing also represents one of the major pitfalls for the analysts.
The high-throughput and depth of quantitative measurements produced by NGS and TGS technologies come at the cost of producing sophisticated algorithms and software tools capable of accurately examining millions to billions of reads. The data generated by these methods are complex, novel and abundant. The computational and statistical analysis of raw outputs is the tricky step where incorrect normalization and processing can yield misleading conclusions. Novel methods of quantitative analysis are constantly under development and testing. There is yet no consensus on which analytical approach is the most accurate, particularly for the Plasmodium genome. The avalanche of whole-genome data over the past few years generated an immense source of knowledge that still requires maturing and processing. Nevertheless, in the near future, these powerful genomic approaches will certainly catalyse the transformation of this biological knowledge into viable therapeutic strategies. Single-cell sequencing will accelerate the genotyping of strains in patients’ blood sample or other field isolates. Comparative genomics then will be an important source of information regarding the evolution and dynamics of malaria parasites’ populations. Ultimately, such knowledge could be used for accurate diagnosis and targeted treatment of patients.