Based on the overall correlation, the area-based variations defin

Based on the overall correlation, the area-based variations defined by a function of the food and PA environment Selleck Ro-3306 seem to be insufficient in explaining the body weight of residents. By testing the cross-level interactions of gender and race/ethnicity with contextual factors, the results suggest that the concept of area-based variations in obesity will have to consider how residents behave differently within a given

environment. More research is needed to better understand the contextual determinants of obesity so as to put forth population-wide interventions.”
“The availability during the last decades of remotely sensed images and global climatic data allow us to analyse the “Earth system” as a whole in order to develop concepts for global environmental management. This system can be considered a complex, dissipative, dynamic entity, far from thermodynamic equilibrium (Schellnhuber, 1999). Energy balance has been considered for many decades to understand the functioning of ecosystems, the biosphere or the Earth planet as a whole, but it is also possible to study our planet from a thermodynamic point of view. In this letter we analyse recent trends in solar exergy and net radiation at global scale during the period 1980-2010, distinguishing between

land and ocean and between different land cover classes. Variations on the solar constant were also analysed. Results show a significant global decrease in CP-868596 ic50 solar exergy, in accordance also with a decrease in the solar constant. Net radiation also shows a global decrease DAPT during the study period, although in this case the results were not statistically significant. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Sentinel node (SN)

biopsy is considered as a standard of care in the staging of breast cancer. We report SN biopsy in a rare case of second ipsilateral subcutaneous recurrence in patient with previous left breast cancer initially treated by breast radiotherapy followed by mammectomy with axillary dissection and multiple mammoplasty. Lymphoscintigraphy was performed. Two axillary radioactive SNs were identified and removed without lymph node involvement at final histology. To conclude, re-operative axillary dissection by SN biopsy after previous axillary and breast surgeries is technically feasible. (C) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“The identification of recurrent gene rearrangements in the clinical Laboratory is the cornerstone for risk stratification and treatment decisions in many malignant tumors. Studies have reported that targeted next-generation sequencing assays have the potential to identify such rearrangements; however, their utility in the clinical laboratory is unknown.

Cascade overlap sequences were also simulated at 700 K and 1400 K

Cascade overlap sequences were also simulated at 700 K and 1400 K in,order to study the radiation damage accumulation in the oxide fuel. This study reveals the maximum damage level

which the material can accommodate for decreases with the temperature. Furthermore the direct formation of vacancy clusters under irradiation is considerably slowed down above 1000 K, notably during cascade overlap sequences. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background: To date, the monitoring of patient progress using standardized assessments has been neglected in hospital-based psychiatric care. Findings in outpatient psychotherapy have demonstrated clinically significant benefits for providing feedback Volasertib clinical trial to the sizeable minority of patients who were otherwise unlikely to experience positive outcome (Lambert, 2007). However, a similar system for presenting feedback on patient progress has not yet been assessed for group therapy selleckchem within psychiatric inpatient settings. The current study aimed to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a feedback system suitable for use in psychiatric services.\n\nMethods: In a nonrandomized trial, 1308 consecutive inpatients and day patients, whose diagnoses were primarily depressive and anxiety disorders, completed

the World Health Organization’s Wellbeing Index (WHO-5) routinely during a ten-day cognitive behavioral therapy group. The first cohort (n = 461) received treatment as usual. The second cohort (n = 439) completed monitoring measures without feedback, and for patients in the third cohort (n = 408), feedback on progress was provided to both clinicians and patients midway through the treatment period.\n\nResults: Feedback was effective in reducing Saracatinib nmr depressive Symptoms (F(1,649)=6.29, p <.05) for those patients at risk of poor outcome, but not effective in improving wellbeing (F(1,569) = 1.14, p >.05).\n\nLimitations:

The current findings may be generalized to patient samples that exhibit largely depressive disorders, however rigorous follow-up is warranted.\n\nConclusions: Similar to outpatient settings, feedback appears to be beneficial for improving symptom outcomes but further time may be required for wellbeing to be affected. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Anemia is a common finding in dialysis patients. Recent evidence has accrued that hepcidin, an iron regulatory peptide, may play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of this condition. This study investigated the effect of erythropoietin (EPO) therapy on serum levels of prohepcidin, the prohormone of hepcidin, in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing chronic dialysis treatment.

] Mycoplasma

gallisepticum como fator de risco no peso de

] Mycoplasma

gallisepticum como fator de risco no peso de lotes de frangos de corte com condenacao por aerossaculite na Inspecao Sanitaria Federal. Pesquisa Veterinaria Brasileira 32(7):645-648. Departamento de Saude Coletiva Veterinaria e Saude Publica, Faculdade de Veterinaria, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rua Dr. Vital Brazil Filho64, Vital Brazil, Niteroi, RJ 24230-340, Brazil. E-mail: [email protected]\n\nThe Brazilian poultry industry improves annually and is more representative on production and exportation LY3023414 mw of their products. Care on poultry health cooperates to these developments, however, respiratory agents that affect weight and carcass quality, continue to threaten poultry production. Airsacculitis is considered the main cause of total and/or partial condemnation of broilers carcasses, being Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) the most important agent of it. This study aimed to detect MG by “Polymerase Chain Reaction” (PCR) and to correlate its positivity with airsacculitis, weight losses

and condemnated broilers by Federal Sanitary Inspection. A total of 40 flocks of slaughter broilers under Federal Inspection in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were randomly selected. In each flock three broilers, regardless of sex, were randomly chosen for necropsy where tracheas were collected and polled in one sample for analysis. For PCR, DNA was extracted by the method of phenol-chloroform and amplified with pairs of specific primers for MG. From the 40 flocks PCR analyzed, 20% (8/40) were positive for MG. MG detection was found to be correlected with airsacculitis increase and weight decrease by multiple logistic

regression equation (p<0,05), LogitPi= 7.9409 + (0,5601 x X1) – (3.3080 x X2). Airsacculitis rate increase also correleted with decrease in body weight by simple linear regression equation (p<0.05), Y= 2.1050 – 0.6397X. In conclusion, MG positivity BAY 63-2521 order is related to airsacculitis which causes weight loss in broilers. In addition, the PCR was an effective technique for the detection of MG in flocks of broilers, but was not affected by the kind of biological specimens collected, as tracheal scraping or swab.”
“A combination of transmission electron microscopy techniques and spatially resolved microanalysis is used to investigate the nanostructure, constituting phases, and chemical elemental distribution in CrAlYN multilayered coatings. The location of the metallic elements and their chemical state are needed to understand their functional properties. Samples were prepared with variable Al (4-12 at%) and Y (2-5 at%) contents by direct current reactive magnetron sputtering on silicon substrates using metallic targets and Ar/N-2 mixtures under different deposition parameters (power applied to the target and rotation speed of the sample holder). The changes produced in the nanostructure and chemical distribution were investigated.

13, 1 01-4 49 and 1 84, 1 29-2 63 respectively) Conclusion: C

13, 1.01-4.49 and 1.84, 1.29-2.63 respectively).\n\nConclusion: Compared with single-agents, doublets significantly improved ORR but not OS. They induced significantly more frequent thrombocytopenia and anemia. The benefit-to-risk ratio of doublets in advanced NSCLC might be. more favorable than that of single agents, based on ORR but not OS. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All

rights reserved.”
“Since 1992, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that women of childbearing age consume 400 A mu g of folic acid per day to reduce the risk of neural tube defects (NTD). It has been speculated that both NTD and find more nervous system tumors (NST) may share common mechanisms of altered development. It examines the association between folic acid supplementation and the risk for childhood NST.\n\nIncident cases of children with cancer in Spain registered between 2004 and 2006 were identified through the MACAPE Network Group. Tumors were classified as tumors derived from the neuroectoderm (cases) and those with a mesoderm origin (controls). In a second analysis, NST were further divided into central nervous system tumors (CNST) and sympathetic nervous system tumors (SNST). We compared folic acid supplementation between the groups.\n\nOverall, folic acid supplementation any time during Bafilomycin A1 price pregnancy was similar between cases and controls (odds ratio (OR) = 1.05; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92-1.20).

However, supplementation before the 21st and 36th days of gestation resulted in significantly lower NST than in children with mesoderm tumors (OR = 0.34; 95% CI 0.17-0.69 and OR = 0.58; 95% CI 0.37-0.91, respectively). Preconceptional intakes of folic acid were also lower in NST although marginally nonsignificant (OR = 0.44; 95% CI 0.10-1.02). When NST were divided into CNST and SNST, significant differences between tumors of mesoderm origin were only found for CNST.\n\nOur results support the hypothesis that folate supplementation reduces the risk of childhood NST, especially CNST. The specific mechanism and cellular role that folate may play in the development of CNST have yet to be elucidated.”

diseases (CVD) account for high morbidity all over the world; risk factors include age, sex, hypertension, smoking, diabetes, high LDL and low HDL cholesterol levels. Elevated Lipoprotein (a) is an emerging independent risk factor in the development of cardiovascular diseases. Biochemical analysis revealed that 62.5 % of the subjects had elevated Lp(a) levels and 75 % of the subjects had elevated Homocysteine levels indicating their being at higher risk of CVD. Increased knowledge of the role of Lp(a) as a risk factor for CHD would be of great benefit. Because Lp(a) is genetically determined, we also recommend further studies to examine the relationship between family history of CHD and Lp(a) levels.\n\nHomocysteine levels in all the subjects were also found to be high.

Fas ligand (FasL) binds Fas on target cells Both these factors a

Fas ligand (FasL) binds Fas on target cells. Both these factors are known to regulate apoptosis at implantation in different species and thus might be involved in the regulation of implantation in dogs. The aim of the study was to assess the expression of Fas and FasL in canine uterine tissue throughout pregnancy as well as in pre-implantation embryos using RT-PCR and RT-qPCR. Uterine tissues was collected from of 21 healthy pregnant bitches (group I: days 1012, n=5; group II: days 1825, n=6; group III:

days 2845, n=6) and from 4 non-pregnant bitches (controls: days 1012). Pregnancy stage was determined by days after mating, that is, 23days after ovulation as determined by vaginal cytology and progesterone measurement. Danusertib After ovariohysterectomy, uteri from group I bitches were flushed with PBS and the embryos washed and stored frozen at -80 degrees. Tissues from the other groups were taken from the implantation and

placentation sites, respectively, covered with Tissue Tek (R) and frozen at -80 degrees. Extraction of RNA was performed with Trizol Reagent and RT-qPCR using SYBR green probes. In pre-implantation embryos, only FasL but not Fas could be detected. Selleckchem PND-1186 In all tissues from pregnant and non-pregnant bitches, both parameters were detectable. Before implantation (group I) expression of FasL resembled that of non-pregnant bitches in early dioestrus and decreased significantly during implantation and thereafter (p<0.05). Expression of Fas did not change significantly until day 45. The relative expression of Fas exceeded that of FasL at each stage investigated, which is comparable to observations of other species; however, high standard deviations indicate high individual differences. These preliminary results point towards a regulatory function of the Fas/FasL system during early canine pregnancy.”
“P>Butterflies and moths show a remarkable diversity of specialized wing shapes, yet little is known about the molecular basis of wing shape determination. To learn more about

this process we examined the expression of dorsoventral (DV) boundary candidate genes in developing wings of several species of Lepidoptera. We found that the transcription factor Cut and mRNA for the signaling Blebbistatin in vivo molecule wingless (wg) are strongly co-expressed in a discrete zone around the larval wing disc margin. Surprisingly, the expression boundary of Cut and wg clearly presages complex future adult wing shapes, including the hindwing tails of swallowtail butterflies, very early in final-instar wing disc development. During pupal wing development the cells in this zone undergo apoptosis, thereby defining the actual margin of the adult wing. Comparison with gene expression in beetle and fly wings suggests that this delineation of a topologically independent boundary running parallel to the DV boundary is a derived feature of Lepidoptera.

These results with Si-HPMC/BCP are encouraging In addition, this

These results with Si-HPMC/BCP are encouraging. In addition, this biomaterial is easy to use and simplifies the process of filling periodontal lesions. However, more researches are needed to improve the viscosity and hardness to adjust the material to the specificities of periodontal defects.”
“Objectives To estimate the accuracy of ultrasound GANT61 cell line to predict birth weight (BW) and BW discordance in monochorionic diamniotic (MCDA) twin pregnancies.\n\nMethods A prospective series of MCDA twin pregnancies was subjected to ultrasound fetal weight estimations (EFW) at 16, 20, and 26 weeks of gestation and within 2 weeks of birth. Intertwin weight discordance

(Delta EFW and Delta BW) was calculated. The correlation between Delta EFW, Delta BW, EFW, and BW was assessed (Pearson) and least square selleck screening library regression analysis was performed. Positive and negative predictive values of ultrasound to detect severe Delta BW were calculated. Receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curves were constructed to predict Delta BW >25% at different time points of gestation.\n\nResults Sixty pregnancies were included. Median Delta BW was 9.98%. Ten(16,7%),

8(13,3%) and 5(8,3%) twin pairs had a Delta BW > 20%, > 25% and > 30%, respectively. BW and EFW (r = 0.96: p < 0.001) as well as Delta BW and Delta EFW were well correlated with each other (r = 0.75; p < 0.001). Bland-Altman analysis showed that ultrasound evaluation overestimated Delta BW if > 20%. Negative predictive value of ultrasound for Delta BW >25% was 98%. The area under the curve (AUC) to predict a Delta BW >25% at

16, 20, and 26 weeks and < 2 weeks before birth was 0.79, 0.87, 0.93, and 0.95, respectively.\n\nConclusions Ultrasound estimations of BW and Delta BW are highly correlated with actual BW and Delta BW in MCDA twin pregnancies. Copyright (C) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“The studies of the HFE mutations: H63D and C282Y in North African populations have revealed the extreme rarity or even the absence of the C282Y mutation. We have examined 200 chromosomes (100 Libyan people live in Benghazi) for the presence of the two HFE mutations by PCR-RFLP analysis by using PCR conditions used to amplify both Autosomal and Y chromosomal STRs. We Transmembrane Transporters inhibitor have found that the allele frequencies are, respectively, 17% for the H63D and 0% for the C282Y. These results are consistent with the worldwide spread of the H63D mutation and the north European restriction of the C282Y.”
“Following range expansion and colonization, hybridization between Herring and Caspian Gulls, Larus argentatus and L. cachinnans, takes place in central and eastern Europe. To examine how hybrid zone is affected by the abundance dynamics of these species and their reproductive performance, we studied a mixed colony at Wloclawek Reservoir, central Poland, for over 7 years, from 2002 to 2009, and induded data from the species monitoring from 1990 to 2001.

Elevated expression of c-MYC has been demonstrated in oesophageal

Elevated expression of c-MYC has been demonstrated in oesophageal adenocarcinoma;

however, the expression of other members of the MYC/MAX/MAD network has not been addressed. The aims of this work were to characterise the expression of c-MYC, MAX and the MAD learn more family in adenocarcinoma development and assess the effects of overexpression on cellular behaviour. mRNA expression in samples of Barrett’s metaplasia and oesophageal adenocarcinoma were examined by qRT-PCR. Semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry and western blotting were used to examine cellular localisation and protein levels. Cellular proliferation and mRNA expression were determined in SEG1 cells overexpressing c-MYCER or MAD1 using a bromodeoxyuridine assay and qRT-PCR, respectively. Consistent with previous work expression of c-MYC was deregulated in oesophageal adenocarcinoma.

Paradoxically, increased expression of putative c-MYC antagonists MAD1 and MXII was observed in tumour specimens. Overexpression of c-MYC and MAD proteins in SEG1 cells resulted CAL-101 mouse in differential expression of MYC/MAX/MAD network members and reciprocal changes in proliferation. In conclusion, the expression patterns of c-MYC, MAX and the MAD family were shown to be deregulated in the oesophageal cancer model.”
“The structural simplicity and ability to capture serial correlations make Markov models a popular modeling choice

in several genomic analyses, such as identification of motifs, genes and regulatory elements. A critical, yet relatively unexplored, issue is the determination of the order of the Markov model. Most biological applications use a predetermined order for all data sets indiscriminately. Here, we show the vast variation in the performance of such applications with the order. To identify the ‘optimal’ order, we investigated two model selection criteria: Akaike information criterion Ferroptosis tumor and Bayesian information criterion (BIC). The BIC optimal order delivers the best performance for mammalian phylogeny reconstruction and motif discovery. Importantly, this order is different from orders typically used by many tools, suggesting that a simple additional step determining this order can significantly improve results. Further, we describe a novel classification approach based on BIC optimal Markov models to predict functionality of tissue-specific promoters. Our classifier discriminates between promoters active across 12 different tissues with remarkable accuracy, yielding 3 times the precision expected by chance. Application to the metagenomics problem of identifying the taxum from a short DNA fragment yields accuracies at least as high as the more complex mainstream methodologies, while retaining conceptual and computational simplicity.

After 2 weeks of adaptation consuming a total mixed ration (TMR;

After 2 weeks of adaptation consuming a total mixed ration (TMR; 219 and 141 g/kg of crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fibre (NDFom), respectively), lambs were weighed and distributed by BW into 4 pens of 8 lambs/pen in a completely randomized design with: Control group TMR; SB group TMR (as Control plus S. babylonica extract at 30 ml/d); LL group TMR (as Control plus L leucocephala extract at 30 ml/d); SBLL group TMR (as Control

plus 30 ml/d of S. babylonica and L leucocephala extracts in a (1:1, v:v) mixture) for a 63 days experiment. Weekly stock volumes (21 each) of the individual extracts as well as their Belinostat datasheet 1:1 mixture were prepared for daily administration. Extracts were orally administered before the 08:00 h feeding to each lamb. Feed intake was recorded daily and BW was recorded at SCH727965 mw d 22 (P1), d 43 (P2) and d 63 (P3) of the experiment. Each experimental period ended with a digestibility measurement. Average daily gain (ADG), metabolizable protein (MP) intake and metabolizable energy (ME) intake were calculated. Plant secondary metabolites of total phenolics, saponins and the aqueous fraction were 50% lower in SB versus LL extracts. An extract x experimental period interaction occurred for intake of all nutrients (SB > LL = Control > SBLL, P<0.05). Intake

of DM, OM, CP and ADFom were lowest in P3 than other periods, whereas the highest nutrients intake were in P2 and P1 (P<0.05). Individual extracts improved (SB >

LL, P=0.05) the digestible DM, OM, EE and CP more than their 1:1 mixture compared with control or SBLL. Digestible DM was improved (P=0.03) by 5 and 3% with SB and LL extracts respectively, compared to control, whereas digestible CP was improved (P=0.005) by 7 and 5%, respectively, compared to control. Digestible ADFom was drastically lower in P1 and increased steadily in periods P2 and P3 (P<0.001). check details Feed intake was not affected by extract addition although it was reduced from P1 and P2 to P3. Relative to control, addition of extracts increased (P=0.024) ADG while the other performance parameters (i.e., MP intake, ME intake) had a tendency (P=0.05) to improve with extract addition. ADG was improved by about 22 and 21% with SB and LL extracts respectively, while their mixture (i.e., SBLL) was 2% compared to control (i.e., SB = LL > Control = SBLL, P=0.024). MP and ME intakes were decreased (P<0.0001) from P1 and P2 to P3. Results show that daily administration of individual extracts of S. babylonica and L leucocephala improved lamb performance by 22 and 21%, but that a mixture of both had a much lower benefit. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

There were no treatment-associated mortalities At median follow-

There were no treatment-associated mortalities. At median follow-up of 6 months, there was 1 tumor with persistent disease (1.9%) and 3 tumors recurred locally (5.7%).\n\nCONCLUSIONS: This early analysis of IRE treatment of perivascular malignant hepatic tumors demonstrates safety for treating liver malignancies. Larger studies and longer follow-up are necessary to determine long-term efficacy. (J Am Coll Surg 2012;215:379-387. (c) 2012 by the American College of Surgeons)”
“Background: Cutaneous melanoma (CM) is the most lethal form of skin find more malignancy, which registers a constant increase in incidence worldwide. The identification of molecular alteration(s)

involved in its biological aggressiveness represents a major challenge for researchers, considering that existing therapies are ineffective to treat metastasizing cases. The

epigenetic control of chromatin dynamics during DNA synthesis, replication, and repair is fundamental Wnt inhibitor for the orderly progression of cell proliferation. The Chromatin Assembly Factor 1 (CAF-1) complex acts as a major regulator of this process; its intermediate (p60) subunit has been recently proposed as a novel proliferation and prognostic marker for several tumors. We aimed to establish if the evaluation of the expression of CAF-1/p60 in primary CM may help define the prevision of outcome of patients.\n\nMethods: Immunohistochemistry with anti-CAF-1/p60 was performed on paraffin-embedded tissue sections of 130 cases of primary Galardin CM retrieved from the archive files of the Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Section of Pathology, University “Federico II” of Naples, Italy. Results were compared with histopathological

and follow-up data of patients.\n\nResults: CAF-1/p60 was expressed in all CM. A significant statistical association between the overexpression of the protein and the occurrence of skin, node and/or distant metastases (P < 0.05) emerged, independently from histopathological prognostic factors.\n\nConclusions: CAF-1/p60 looks promising as a new prognostic marker for CM and sheds new light on the molecular events associated with photocancerogenesis and melanoma biology. The screening for CAF-1/p60 might contribute to the molecular sub-classification of CM, with improved translational outcomes.”
“Iron is an essential nutrient critical for many cellular functions including DNA synthesis, ATP generation, and cellular proliferation. Though essential, excessive iron may contribute to the generation of free radicals capable of damaging cellular lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. As such, the maintenance and control of cellular iron homeostasis is critical to prevent either iron deficiency or iron toxicity conditions.

The cytotoxicity, mechanism of cell death, mitotic activity, and

The cytotoxicity, mechanism of cell death, mitotic activity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were determined by tetrazolium bromide reduction assay, flow cytometry, cytokinesis-block proliferation index, and superoxide dismutase-inhibitable reduction of ferricytochrome c, respectively. The genotoxicity was measured using PND-1186 concentration comet assay and cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. The cytotoxicity of CHX in RAW264.7 cells presented a dose- and time-dependent manner (p smaller than 0.05). The mode of cell death shifted from apoptosis to necrosis when the dosage of CHX increased. The genotoxicity of CHX in RAW264.7 cells had shown

DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner (p smaller than 0.05). Prolongation of cell cycle and the increase of ROS generation also expressed in a dose-dependent manner (p smaller than 0.05). Taken together, the data suggested that CHX-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity on macrophages may be via ROS generation. (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ compound screening assay Toxicol 29: 452-458, 2014.”
“In this paper, I discuss the discovery of the DNA structure by Francis Crick and James Watson, which has provoked a large

historical literature but has yet not found entry into philosophical debates. I want to redress this imbalance. In contrast to the available historical literature, a strong emphasis will be placed upon analysing the roles played by theory, model, and evidence and the relationship between them. In particular, I am going to discuss not only Crick and Watson’s well-known model and Franklin’s x-ray diffraction pictures (the evidence) but also the less well known theory of helical diffraction, which was absolutely crucial to Crick and Watson’s discovery. The insights into this groundbreaking selleck chemicals llc historical episode will have consequences for the ‘new’ received view of scientific models and their function and relationship

to theory and world. The received view, dominated by works by Cartwright and Morgan and Morrison ([1999]), rather than trying to put forth a ‘theory of models’, is interested in questions to do with (i) the function of models in scientific practice and (ii) the construction of models. In regard to (i), the received view locates the model (as an idealized, simplified version of the real system under investigation) between theory and the world and sees the model as allowing the application of the former to the latter. As to (ii) Cartwright has argued for a phenomenologically driven view and Morgan and Morrison ([1999]) for the ‘autonomy’ of models in the construction process: models are determined neither by theory nor by the world. The present case study of the discovery of the DNA structure strongly challenges both (i) and (ii). In contrast to claim (i) of the received view, it was not Crick and Watson’s model but rather the helical diffraction theory which served a mediating purpose between the model and the x-ray diffraction pictures.