We express these sensitivities for conductance tensor components

We express these sensitivities for conductance tensor components and for other charge

transport quantities. Both resistive and Hall sensitivities, for a van der Pauw specimen selleck chemicals in a finite magnetic field, are a superposition of the zero-field sensitivities to both sheet resistance and Hall sheet resistance. Strong perturbations produce a nonlinear correction term that depends on the strength of the inhomogeneity. Solution of the specific case of a finite-sized circular inhomogeneity coaxial with a circular specimen suggests a first-order correction for the general case. Our results are confirmed by computer simulations on both a linear four-point probe array on a large circular disc and a van der Pauw square geometry. Furthermore, the results also agree well with Nahlik et al. published experimental results for physical holes in a circular copper foil disc. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.”
“Here we show how agricultural practices by indigenous peoples as well as forest recovery relate to the structure and composition of Amazon soil bacterial communities. Soil samples were collected in different land use systems and bacterial community composition and diversity were explored by

T-RFLP, cloning and sequencing, and data were analyzed with multivariate techniques. The main differences in bacterial community structure were related to changes in the soil attributes that, in turn, were correlated to land use. Community structure changed significantly along gradients of base saturation, [Al(3+)] and pH. The relationship with soil attributes accounted for JPH203 datasheet about 31% of the variation of the studied communities. Clear differences were observed in community composition as shown by the differential distribution of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria. Similarity between primary and secondary forest communities indicates the recovery of bacterial community structure during succession. Pasture and crop soil communities were among the most diverse, showing that these land use types did not deplete bacterial

diversity under the conditions found in our sites. The ISME Journal (2009) 3, 1004-1011; doi:10.1038/ismej.2009.47; published online 14 May 2009″
“Generation of the pleiotropic sphingolipid mediator ceramide by acid and buy CA3 neutral sphingomyelinases is a key event in many cellular pathophysiological processes including survival, death, proliferation, and differentiation, in which also the short-lived gaseous messenger nitric oxide plays a crucial role. This review describes how the outcome of these key cellular processes is finely tuned by surprising and complex interplays among nitric oxide, ceramide, and their effectors.”
“Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of breast masses has been replaced by ultrasound-guided core-needle biopsy (USG-CNB) in many countries.

The serum eosinophil count decreased from 460 to 270 mu L and the

The serum eosinophil count decreased from 460 to 270 mu L and the neutrophil count increased from

2,200 to 10,500 mu L at 6 h. The skin prick test with wheat extract, prick to prick test with whole wheat and serum-specific Ig E for wheat were negative. We conclude that FPIES can emerge with food in connection with eating habits or culture. In view of its potentially serious clinical course, it is critical to consider this diagnosis in young children presenting with acute onset of gastrointestinal symptoms or shock.”
“Pharmacology and regenerative medicine interact in two ways. One buy Baf-A1 is the use of drugs to promote tissue regeneration. The other, less obvious but with great potential, is the use of techniques developed for regenerative medicine to engineer realistic human organoids for drug screening. This review focuses on testing for nephrotoxicity, often a problem with drugs and poorly predicted in animals. Current human-based screens mainly use proximal tubule cells growing in 2D monolayers. Realism might be improved by collagen-based GDC-0068 purchase culture systems that encourage proximal tubule cells to grow as tubules. More realistic would be a recently developed technique for engineering functioning ‘mini-kidneys’ from suspensions of stem cells, a technique that works in mouse but that could also be applied to humans.”
“The protective activity of the methanolic extract of the Crataegus songarica leaves was investigated

against CCl4- and paracetamol-induced liver damage. On folklore levels, this plant is popularly used to treat various toxicological diseases. We evaluated both in vitro and ex vivo antioxidant Y-27632 supplier activity of C. songarica. At higher concentration of plant extract (700 mu g/ml), 88.106% inhibition on DPPH radical scavenging activity was observed and reducing power of extract

was increased in a concentration-dependent manner. We also observed its inhibition on Fe2+/ascorbic acid-induced lipid peroxidation on rat liver microsomes in vitro. In addition, C. songarica extract exhibited antioxidant effects on calf thymus DNA damage induced by Fenton reaction. Hepatotoxicity was induced by challenging the animals with CCl4 (1 ml/kg body weight, i.p.) and paracetamol (500 mg/kg body weight) and the extract was administered at three concentrations (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight). Hepatoprotection was evaluated by determining the activities of liver function marker enzymes and antioxidant status of liver. Administration of CCl4 elevated the levels of liver function enzymes, SGOT, SGPT, and LDH. We also observed a dramatic increase in ALT, AST, bilirubin, and alkaline phosphatase levels in rats administered 500 mg/kg body weight of paracetamol. Decreased antioxidant defense system as glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were observed in rats treated with CCl4 and paracetamol.

The positive

effect on the crystallization of PVDF may be

The positive

effect on the crystallization of PVDF may be ascribed to not only due to the existence Autophagy pathway inhibitors of pi-cation interaction between the imidazolium cation and the aromatic multiwall carbon nanotubes structure, but also due to the electrostatic interaction between the bigger than CF2 of the polymer backbone and imidazolium cation, which speed up the crystallization kinetics.”
“Glaucoma may develop or worsen after ocular surface transplantation and often requires surgical management for adequate intraocular pressure control. Traditional glaucoma filtering procedures in patients with prior ocular surface transplant may be problematic for several reasons, which include mechanical disruption of the pre-existing graft, epithelial and stem cell toxicity induced by antifibrotic agents, and increased risk of future corneal transplantation failure. We describe the implantation of a glaucoma drainage implant via a limbal-based conjunctival incision with tube placement in the ciliary sulcus in three eyes of two patients with prior ocular surface transplantation. At a follow-up interval of 3-7 months, all three eyes have excellent postoperative control of intraocular pressure, stable vision, and healthy ocular surface grafts.”
“The Kaposi sarcoma-associated

herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of Kaposi sarcoma (KS), the most common HIV/AIDS-associated tumor worldwide. Involvement of the oral cavity portends a poor prognosis for patients with KS, but mechanisms for KSHV regulation of the oral tumor microenvironment are largely unknown. Infiltrating fibroblasts

Adriamycin ic50 are found with KS lesions, and KSHV establishes latent infection within human primary fibroblasts in vitro, but contributions for KSHV-infected fibroblasts to the KS microenvironment have not been previously characterized. Secretion of pro-migratory factors and intra-tumoral invasion are characteristics of tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAF) found in the microenvironment of non-viral malignancies. In the present study, we show that latent KSHV infection of primary human fibroblasts isolated from the oral cavity enhances their AZD1208 cell line secretion of KS-promoting cytokines and intrinsic invasiveness through VEGF-dependent mechanisms. Moreover, we find that KSHV induces these effects through Sp1- and Egr2-dependent transcriptional activation of the Extracellular Matrix MetalloPRoteinase INducer (emmprin). These data implicate KSHV activation of emmprin in the induction of a “TAF-like” phenotype for oral fibroblasts in the KS microenvironment and support the potential utility of targeting TAFs and/or emmprin in the treatment of oral KS. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“During the period 2007-2008 several epizootics of Yellow fever with dead of monkeys occurred in southeastern Brasil, Paraguay, and northeastern Argentina.

Recently, the pK(a) value of this cysteine in Corynebacterium glu

Recently, the pK(a) value of this cysteine in Corynebacterium glutamicum and Mycobacterium tuberculosis NrdH-redoxins were determined, but structural insights explaining the relatively low pK(a) remained elusive. We subjected C. glutamicum NrdH-redoxin to an extensive molecular dynamics simulation to expose the factors regulating the pK(a) of the nucleophilic cysteine. We found that the nucleophilic cysteine receives three hydrogen bonds from residues within

the CVQC active site motif. Additionally, a fourth hydrogen bond with a lysine located N-terminal of VX-809 clinical trial the active site further lowers the cysteine pK(a). However, site-directed mutagenesis data show that the major contribution to the lowering of the cysteine pK(a) comes from the positive charge of the lysine and not from the additional Lys-Cys hydrogen bond. In 12% of the NrdH-redoxin family, this lysine is replaced by Selleck PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitor 3 an arginine that also lowers the cysteine pK(a). All together, the

four hydrogen bonds and the electrostatic effect of a lysine or an arginine located N-terminally of the active site dynamically regulate the pK(a) of the nucleophilic cysteine in NrdH-redoxins.”
“Objective. The aim of this research was to characterize hospitalizations associated with discharges against medical advice (DAMA) in a large, population-based data system. Materials and methods. This was a retrospective cohort study on 11 436 500 hospital admissions. The hospital discharge records for residents of the Veneto region (north-east Italy) discharged from 2001 to 2012, from both public and accredited private hospitals, were considered. The DAMA rate was calculated by type of hospital admission, excluding patients who died. The time trend of the DAMA rate was charted from the average annual percent changes. Results. During the

period considered, 66 549 DAMA were recorded, amounting to an overall DAMA rate of 6.0 parts per thousand admissions. Analyzing the diagnostic categories, admissions for substance abuse (drugs or alcohol) and dependence coincided with the highest DAMA rate (83.5 parts per thousand), followed by poisoning (40.2 parts per thousand), selleck chemical psychiatric disorders (24.7 parts per thousand), traumas (21.1 parts per thousand), HIV-related diseases (19.9 parts per thousand), burns (10.5 parts per thousand), and – for women – issues relating to pregnancy, childbirth and the postnatal period (11.2 parts per thousand). The DAMA rate dropped from 6.72 to 5.55 from 2000 to 2008, then remained stable. Conclusion. The DAMA rate dropped slightly over the period considered. Several diagnostic categories are associated with a higher likelihood of patients leaving hospital against their doctor’s advice.”
“The cellular innate immune system plays a crucial role in mounting the initial resistance to virus infection. It is comprised of various pattern-recognition receptors that induce type I interferon production, which further shapes the adaptive immunity.

In addition, H(2)O(2) strongly induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2,

In addition, H(2)O(2) strongly induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, but not ERK5, in eosinophils. Hydrogen peroxide-triggered activation of caspase-3 and ERK1/2 was attenuated by pretreatment with rotenone.\n\nConclusions: These results suggest that mitochondrial respiration Quisinostat Epigenetics inhibitor is essential for activation of ERK1/2 and caspase-3 in human eosinophils stimulated with H(2)O(2).”
“An electrostatic force microscope system in a scanning electron microscope specimen chamber was developed to measure the surface

potential of an insulator film on a conductive substrate irradiated by an electron beam. As the accelerating voltage varies with the constant beam current, the surface charges positively if the voltage is lower than 1 kV or higher than 3 kV but negatively if the voltage is between 1.1 and 2.7 kV. This positive-negative-positive potential alternation is explained by the relationship between the electron range and the film thickness, and verified by the Monte Carlo simulation of electron trajectories. By selecting the acceleration

voltage as 30 kV to show less potential variation with time, the spatial potential distribution at the specimen surface is obtained, and a negative dip is observed around 50 mu m from the edge of the irradiated area. The authors find that the depth of the dip increases with an increase in check details the electron dose, and the negative potential distribution spreads Epigenetic inhibitor over 300 mu m is obtained, which is almost 10 times larger than the primary electron range in the specimen. The characteristic variation in the distribution agrees with a hypothetically derived charge distribution obtained in a different experiment. (C) 2011 American Vacuum Society. [DOI: 10.1116/1.3662079]“
“The development of red color in the peel of red Chinese sand pears (Pyrus pyrifolia

Nakai) is influenced by temperature and light; however, the response patterns vary among different cultivars. In this study, we systematically investigated the influence of postharvest treatment with various temperatures (low, high, variant and constant) on detached mature fruit of red Chinese sand pear ‘Mantianhong’ and ‘Meirensu’. Fruit of red apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) ‘Royal Gala’ and red European pear (P. communis L.) ‘Cascade’ received the same treatments for comparison. Furthermore, the effects of light quality and irradiance level on ‘Mantianhong’ pears were evaluated at the optimum temperature for anthocyanin accumulation. Fruit firmness and concentrations of total soluble sugars and organic acids were measured to determine fruit quality. The effect of temperature on red Chinese sand pear fruit color was similar to that of apples, but not European pear.

Results: Patients (n = 326) were mostly female (70%) and low

\n\nResults: Patients (n = 326) were mostly female (70%) and low income. Using a generalized estimating equations model (GEE) with patients nested within clinician, patient perceived autonomy support increased at post-intervention compared to baseline (mean HCCQ scores 3.68-4.06, p = 0.03).

There was no significant change in patient perceived competence for physical activity.\n\nConclusions: A clinician-directed intervention increased patient perceptions of clinician autonomy buy Adavosertib support but not patient perceived competence for physical activity. Practice implications: Clinicians working with underserved populations can be taught to improve their autonomy supportiveness, according to patient assessments of their clinicians. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Laser detection of latent fingerprints on a white paper has been performed, previously. Ultraviolet fluorescence from various kinds of printer toner and ink used for home printers were measured to study fluorescence

imaging of fingerprints on a color-printed white paper. The experimental system consisted of a nanosecond pulsed tunable laser and a cooled CCD camera. Excitation wavelengths are 230 and 280 nm. Fourteen printers consisting Selleck Crenigacestat of three color laser printers, three color inkjet printers, five monochrome laser printers, two monochrome copy machines, and a color copy machine were tested. Toner and ink of most printers exhibited fluorescence Fedratinib purchase in the region

from 360 to 550 nm. In most cases, clear fluorescence images were obtained by time-resolved imaging with a band-pass filter and 280-nm excitation. However for toners from laser color printers that showed strong fluorescence, better results were obtained with 230-nm excitation. Latent fingerprints on a photograph page and a black-character page of a newspaper were also imaged.”
“All life stages of B. chanayi (Acariformes: Cheyletidae) are characterized by occasional bloodsucking and a long period of digestion. No newly engorged mites were found during the period of their host birds’ migration. The fine structure of the digestive tract of a blood-feeding acariform mite is described for the first time. The anterior midgut (AMG) is a place of blood digestion, while the posterior midgut (PMG) is involved in nitrogen metabolism forming guanine crystals as the main end-product. The AMG epithelium consists of digestive cells that probably arise from mitotically active basal cells with high synthesizing activity.\n\nAs observed in ticks, blood digestion is accompanied by the formation of huge endosomes that serve as places of storage and sorting of ingested material.

“Both electric and magnetic field-induced switching behavi

“Both electric and magnetic field-induced switching behaviors between a high resistive state and a low resistive one are observed in (La0.73Bi0.27)(0.67)Ca0.33MnO3. The effects of magnetoresistance and electric-resistance suggest that the applied electric field and magnetic field greatly tune the percolative paths in the phase-separated system. According to the experimental results, the switching behaviors may come from the coexistence of the charge ordering state, and localized and freedom ferromagnetic states, in which the external

field destroys partially the localized ferromagnetic states and charge ordering leads to the ferromagnetic state growth, which causes a switch between a high resistive

state and low resistive one. This makes the doped manganite a good system for both electric and magnetic field sensor materials.”
“Background: Neuroendocrine β-Nicotinamide in vivo Nutlin-3a clinical trial tumours (NET) of the appendix are rare histopathological neoplasms detected following operation for appendicitis in childhood. The role (if any) for radical surgery notably right hemicolectomy (RHC) has often reflected the ‘expert opinion’ of adult general surgeons with wider experience of managing NET lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. Critical decisions have focused on (a) tumour size, (b) histology, (c) tumour location/invasion and (d) positive lymph nodes. Against this background we report the clinical outcome of children with ‘incidental’ appendix carcinoid tumours managed at two regional Ion Channel Ligand Library manufacturer UK paediatric surgery centres. A critical review of the literature is additionally provided in an effort to define contemporary patterns of care in paediatric surgical practice. Methods: Hospital records and pathology database(s)

identified 27 patients at two UK centres with a confirmed histological diagnosis of appendix NET lesions during January 1997-January 2013. A PUBMED and EMBASE search strategy-(English language publications only), 1975-present, was performed to gather information on all patients younger than 20 years at primary diagnosis with NET appendix tumours to review their management and outcomes. Results: All 27 patients treated at the two institutions had acute appendicitis including 3 cases presenting with an appendix mass. Twenty-five underwent appendicectomy with two having interval operations. Tumours had a maximum diameter of 2-18 mm (median 9 mm) with 73% of lesions located at the appendix tip. Fourteen (52%) had tumour invading the mesoappendix. All patients underwent appendicectomy only with no single case having RHC or additional surgery. Surveillance studies (5HIAA, chromogranin-A) and imaging including ultrasound or CT were deployed in a minority of patients revealing no abnormality.

The HPLC-MS/MS assay showed good linearity in concentration range

The HPLC-MS/MS assay showed good linearity in concentration range 0-200 ng mL(-1), sensitivity (lowest limit of detection 0.04 ng mL(-1)), and high analytical recovery (average 99%, range 93-107%). The 5th to 95th percentile for 111 normal healthy controls was 6-60.7 ng mL(-1). There were significant overall group differences (ANOVA on ranks, P < 0.001), with significantly higher values for terminal ileal disease or resection. There were significant differences between health and IBS (ANOVA, P = 0.043) with

higher mean values in IBS-D relative to controls (rank sum test, P = 0.027). We have established a sensitive non-isotopic assay based on HPLC-MS/MS, determined normal 7 alpha C4 values, and identified increased 7 alpha C4 in IBS-D and in distal ileal resection and disease. This assay has potential as a non-invasive test for BAM in IBS.”
“Background: Bicompartmental or unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (BKA, UKA) is see more currently advocated as an alternative solution to conventional total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in order to preserve bone stock and ligaments for limited osteoarthritis (OA) with intact anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments (ACL, PCL). However, the actual rate of UKA or BKA compared to TKA procedures in OA patients check details has not been reported. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed preoperative MRI of the knee in subjects who underwent knee arthroplasty and assessed the

potential for UKA or BKA as an alternative treatment.\n\nMethods: Data were extracted from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) public use data set, which included 4,796 subjects, ages 45-79. 3.0 Tesla MRI scanners were dedicated to imaging the knees of OAI participants annually from February 2004 to March 2010. Extensive quantitative measurements of the knee MRI were performed on 87 patients who underwent knee arthroplasty during follow-up visits. We assessed the cartilage thickness and defect size in the medial femorotibial joint (FTJ), lateral FTJ, and patellofemoral joint (PFJ) as well as ligamentous injury, bone marrow Bindarit edema, and subchondral cyst size from 2D coronal turbo spin echo (TSE), 2D sagittal TSE, 3D coronal T1-weighted

water-excitation fast low angle shot (FLASH), and 3D sagittal water-excitation double echo steady-state (DESS) with axial and coronal reformat images.\n\nResults: Eighty-five subjects (97.7%) were subjected to TKA, while only 2 subjects (2.3%) received UKA from the OAI database. Based on the preoperative MRI findings criteria, 51 of 87 subjects (58.6%) met the indication for TKA including the 2 UKA subjects above. This rate was significantly lower (p<0.001) than the actual TKA rate received. Among 85 subjects who actually underwent TKA, 31 subjects (36.5%) and 5 subjects (5.9%) met the indication for BKA and UKA, respectively.\n\nConclusions: Many medial or lateral compartmental OA subjects, with or without patellar compartment defects have undergone TKA.

PA is significantly reduced in Os-lpa-XS110-2 (similar to 20%) an

PA is significantly reduced in Os-lpa-XS110-2 (similar to 20%) and in 4A-02500 (similar to 90%) seeds compared with their wild type lines, and no PA was detected in Os-lpa-XS110-3 using HPLC analysis. This evidence indicates that the OsMRP5 gene plays an important role in PA metabolism in rice seeds.”
“The Brazilian rosewood (Dalbergia nigra) selleck screening library is an endangered tree endemic to the central Brazilian Atlantic Forest, one of the world’s most threatened biomes. The population diversity,

phylogeographic structure and demographic history of this species were investigated using the variation in the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequences of 185 individuals from 19 populations along the geographical range of the species. Fifteen haplotypes were detected in the analysis

of 1297 bp from two non-coding sequences, trnV-trnM and trnL. We identified a strong genetic structure (F(ST) = 0.62, P<0.0001), with a latitudinal click here separation into three phylogeographic groups. The two northernmost groups showed evidence of having maintained historically larger populations than the southern-most group. Estimates of divergence times between these groups pointed to vicariance events in the Middle Pleistocene (ca. 350 000-780 000 years ago). The recurrence of past climatic changes in the central part of the Atlantic forest, with cycles of forest expansion and contraction, may have led to repeated vicariance events, resulting in the genetic differentiation of these groups. Based on comparisons among the populations of large reserves and small, disturbed fragments of the same phylogeographic group, we also found evidence of recent anthropogenic effects on genetic diversity. The results were also analysed with the aim of contributing to the conservation of D. nigra. We suggest that the three phylogeographic groups could be considered as three distinct management units. Based on the genetic diversity and uniqueness of the populations, we also indicate priority areas for conservation. Heredity (2011) 106, 46-57; doi:10.1038/hdy.2010.64; published online 2 June 2010″
“Full-field quantitative strain maps of phase

transformation and plasticity this website in Nitinol under large shear-dominated deformation are presented. To achieve a shear-dominated deformation mode with relatively uniform stresses and strains, a shear compression specimen (SCS) geometry was utilized. Shear deformation appears to impede the development of the strain localization during phase transformation that is seen in uniaxial testing. The shear-dominant deformation of Nitinol in the plastic regime exhibits low hardening and results in the development of significant strain inhomogeneity.”
“Integrative taxonomy, in which multiple disciplines are combined to address questions related to biological species diversity, is a valuable tool for identifying pelagic marine fish larvae and recognizing the existence of new fish species.

A Turkish CTX-M-15-producing isolate as a member of the clone ST1

A Turkish CTX-M-15-producing isolate as a member of the clone ST131 was suggested by a high similarity of its PFGE profile to that of the clone representative and was confirmed by O serotyping, AmpC typing and MLST.\n\nConclusions: This study describes the community emergence of CTX-M-15-producing E. coli isolates, including an isolate of clone O25-ST131, in Turkey.”
“Background: CX-6258 solubility dmso There are well-established socio-economic differences in the prevalence of smoking in the UK, but

conventional socio-economic measures may not capture the range and degree of these associations. We have used a commercial geodemographic profiling system, Mosaic, to explore associations with smoking prevalence in a large primary care dataset and to establish whether this tool provides new insights into socio-economic determinants of smoking.\n\nMethods: We analysed anonymised data on over 2 million patients from The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database, linked via patients’ postcodes to Mosaic classifications

learn more (11 groups and 61 types) and quintiles of Townsend Index of Multiple Deprivation. Patients’ current smoking status was identified using Read Codes, and logistic regression was used to explore the associations between the available measures of socioeconomic status and smoking prevalence.\n\nResults: As anticipated, smoking prevalence increased with increasing deprivation according to the Townsend Index (age and sex adjusted OR for highest vs lowest quintile 2.96, 95% CI 2.92-2.99). There were more marked differences in prevalence across Mosaic groups (OR for group G vs group A 4.41, 95% CI 4.33-4.49). Across the 61 Mosaic types, smoking prevalence varied from 8.6% to 42.7%. Mosaic types

with high smoking prevalence were characterised by relative deprivation, but also more specifically by single-parent households living in public rented accommodation in areas with little community support, having no access to a car, few qualifications and high TV Angiogenesis inhibitor viewing behaviour.\n\nConclusion: Conventional socio-economic measures may underplay social disparities in smoking prevalence. Newer classification systems, such as Mosaic, encompass a wider range of demographic, lifestyle and behaviour data, and are valuable in identifying characteristics of groups of heavy smokers which might be used to tailor cessation interventions.”
“Microporous poly(tri(4-ethynylphenyl)amine) networks were synthesized by palladium-catalyzed Sonogashira-Hagihara cross-coupling chemistry with apparent Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) specific surface areas in the range 500-1100 m(2)/g. It was found that very fine synthetic control over physical properties such as BET surface area, Langmuir surface area, micropore surface area, micropore volume, and bulk density could be achieved by varying the average monomer strut length.