000, and polymorphic information content from 0.059 to 0.934. Three loci gave significant hits to other haliotid genes and/or microsatellite loci; hits to genes were always located in the 5′/3′-UTR or intron region. Many of these newly designed markers would be useful for parentage, population and linkage studies.”
“Atomic layer deposited (ALD) Pb(Zr,Ti)O-x (PZT) ultra-thin films were synthesized on an ALD Al2O3 insulation layer on 4H-SiC substrate for metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor
(MFIS) JPH203 device applications. The as-deposited PZT was amorphous but crystallized into a perovskite polycrystalline structure with a preferred  orientation upon rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 950 degrees C. The capacitance-voltage and current-voltage characteristics of the MFIS devices indicate carrier injection to the film induced by polarization and Fowler-Nordheim (FN) tunneling when electric field was high. The polarization-voltage measurements exhibited reasonable remanent and Selleckchem Bafilomycin A1 saturation polarization and a coercive electrical field comparable to that reported for bulk PZT. The piezoresponse force microscope measurements
confirmed the polarization, coercive, and retention properties of ultra-thin ALD PZT films. (c) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3596574]“
“In this paper, we describe a technique to evaluate the evolutionary dynamics of the timing of spawning for iteroparous species. The life cycle of the species consists of
three life stages, embryonic, juvenile and adult whereby the transitions of life stages (gametogenesis, birth and maturation) occur at species-specific sizes. The dynamics of the population is studied in a semi-chemostat environment where the inflowing food concentration is periodic (annual). A dynamic energy budget-based continuous-time model is used to describe the uptake of the food, storage in reserves and allocation of the energy to growth, maintenance, development (embryos, juveniles) and reproduction (adults). A discrete-event process is used ICG-001 chemical structure for modelling reproduction. At a fixed spawning date of the year, the reproduction buffer is emptied and a new cohort is formed by eggs with a fixed size and energy content. The population consists of cohorts: for each year one consisting of individuals with the same age which die after their last reproduction event. The resulting mathematical model is a finite-dimensional set of ordinary differential equations with fixed 1-year periodic boundary conditions yielding a stroboscopic map. We will study the evolutionary development of the population using the adaptive dynamics approach. The trait is the timing of spawning. Pairwise and mutual invasibility plots are calculated using bifurcation analysis of the stroboscopic map. The evolutionary singular strategy value belonging to the evolutionary endpoint for the trait allows for an interpretation of the reproduction strategy of the population.