As seen in Table 2, the effect of the interaction of the ammonium protons with external spins is to transfer magnetisation between adjacent transitions of the Zeeman basis. In the NMR spectrum of the AX4 spin-system, the relaxation caused by the external protons is thus manifested as a transfer of magnetisation between adjacent lines of the coupled spectrum, for example between the outermost ωN+4πJNHωN+4πJNH line and the ωN+2πJNHωN+2πJNH line. When probing molecular motions and dynamics from nuclear spin-relaxation rates a, combination of transverse and longitudinal relaxation rates often provide a more accurate picture of the molecular dynamics than either one of the rates alone [36] and [37]. We ATM/ATR inhibitor review have

calculated the GSK1120212 longitudinal relaxation rates for the longitudinal operators in the product operator basis, which comprise ten operators, denoted by: E/2, Hz, 2HzHz, 4HzHzHz, 8HzHzHzHz, Nz, 2NzHz, 4NzHzHz, 8NzHzHzHz, 16NzHzHzHzHz, where E is the identity operator. For simplicity we have ignored the zero-quantum proton coherences since these are only generated via cross-correlated relaxation mechanisms and are normally not populated at the start of the NMR experiment. As for the calculation of the transverse relaxation rates,

the four 15N–1H dipolar interactions and the six 1H–1H dipolar interactions were all included for the calculations of the longitudinal relaxation rates. The obtained rates are given in Table 4. When the density spin-operator N+ evolves under the free-precession Hamiltonian and N+ is directly detected, then a canonical quintet (1:4:6:4:1) reflecting the number and degeneracies of the Zeeman eigenstates ( Fig. 1) is observed. When an antiphase coherence is evolved and/or detected, the angular frequencies of the five transitions remain unchanged, C59 but the relative intensities of the NMR lines within the quintet are altered. For example, evolution of the anti-phase coherence 2N+Hz, and detection of N+ gives a spectrum with relative peak intensities within the quintet of 1:2:0:−2:−1,

which can be derived from: equation(20) FID(t)=〈exp(-iH^0t)2N+Hzexp(iH^0t)|N+〉where we have ignored relaxation for the moment. The central line (ν3, ν7, ν9) is not observed since the antiphase coherence 2N+Hz does not include these transitions ( Table 1). Evolving anti-phase coherences of AXn spin systems lead to coupling patterns and multiplet structures of the A-spin NMR spectrum that can be intuitively derived from a modified Pascal’s triangle. In the modified Pascal’s triangle presented here, each X spin that is scalar coupled to A and whose spin-state is described with the identity operator splits the NMR line into two lines with equal intensity, while each X spin whose state is described by the longitudinal density element, Xz, splits the NMR line into two lines with opposite intensity ( Fig. 3).