brasiliensis can induce an asthma-like pathology when delivered i

brasiliensis can induce an asthma-like pathology when delivered intranasally to sensitized mice, including eosinophilia and production of IgE and Type 2 cytokines (38). Cross-regulation of Type 1 and Type 2 cytokines has been

an area of profound interest in immunology for the last 25 years and studies Selleckchem Fulvestrant with N. brasiliensis have contributed to the in vivo confirmation, or in some cases, a “reality check”, on the myriad of in vitro studies. Intranasal delivery of Mycobacterium bovis-Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG), a strong inducer of Type 1 cytokines, can inhibit local and regional production of Type 2 cytokines and airway eosinophilia induced by N. brasiliensis and this is dependent on IFN-γ (39). Conversely, IL-4 can inhibit generation of IL-2 in a Blimp-1-dependent manner (40). Le Gros’ former postgraduate students Ben Marsland and Nicola Harris (now at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, Switzerland) continue to use N. brasiliensis to develop our understanding of helper T cell differentiation

and function. Their recent publications develop on Selleckchem DMXAA interests from the Le Gros laboratory, including the roles of protein kinase C theta (41), IL-21 (42) and parasite products (43) in the differentiation of Type 2 cytokine-secreting CD4+ T cells and in the immunopathology of inflammatory lung disease (44). Although blood and tissue eosinophilia are often seen in humans with tissue-invasive helminth infections, it is not easy to determine whether these leucocytes can protect against parasites (45). Studies of N. brasiliensis infections conducted in Lindsay Dent’s laboratory (University of Adelaide, South Australia) began in 1993, aided by the earlier experiences of his colleague Graham Mayrhofer, who had explored IgE and mast cell responses in infected rats (46–49). Dent, Mayrhofer and colleagues set out

to explore the role of eosinophils in resistance to N. brasiliensis and other nematodes using CD2/IL-5 Resminostat transgenic (Tg) mice generated in Colin Sanderson’s laboratory at the National Institute for Medical Research (NIMR, Mill Hill, UK) (50). These animals, originally produced on a CBA/Ca background and later also backcrossed into the BALB/c and C57BL/6 backgrounds (51), have constitutive eosinophilia in the peripheral blood, spleen and bone marrow. Early experiments initiated at NIMR suggested that IL-5 Tg mice do not have enhanced resistance to primary peritoneal infection with the cestode Mesocestoides corti (52), or primary or vaccine-induced resistance to the trematode Schistosoma mansoni (53) and also develop only modest lung inflammation and pathology in response to the aeroallergen chicken ovalbumin (OVA) (54). As with infections with S. mansoni (53), IL-5 Tg mice are also actually more susceptible than wild-type (WT) littermates to T. spiralis (54) and Plasmodium chabaudi (Dent and Brown, unpublished). Our findings with primary T.

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