(C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd All rights reserved “

(C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Aims: To investigate the ability of bacilli of various species (Bacillus clausii, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus lentus, Bacillus pumilus. Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus firmus, Bacillus sp.) and origins (probiotic and collection strains) to counteract the activity of some representative this website DNA-reactive agents.

Methods and Results: The inhibitory effect of 21 bacilli strains, previously characterized by tDNA-PCR, on four genotoxins, was examined in vitro using the short-term assay SOS-Chromotest. All strains had a high inhibitory activity against

4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide and N-methyl-N’-nitro-nitrosoguanidine (direct agents), whereas the inhibitory activity was high or moderate against 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline and aflatoxin B1 (indirect agents). Antigenotoxicity was observed in vegetative cells, but not heat-treated cells or spore suspensions. The spectroscopic properties of compounds were modified after cell co-incubation and all the strains maintained high viability buy VX-770 after exposure to the genotoxins.

Conclusions: No relevant differences in antigenotoxicity were evidenced among strains of the examined species or between probiotic and collection strains.

Significance and Impact of the Study: Although derived from an in vitro model, the results suggest that Bacillus-based probiotics could be useful for reducing the gastrointestinal risk originating

from genotoxic agents.”
“Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are G-protein-coupled receptors and are densely expressed in the forebrain of adult rats. Accumulative evidence suggests a critical role of mGluRs in the regulation of normal physiological activity of neurons and pathogenesis of mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, depression, and substance addiction. In this study, we investigated alterations in mGluR8 subtype mRNA expression in the rat forebrain in response to repeated intraperitoneal administration of amphetamine (twice daily for 12 days, 5 mg/kg per injection) using quantitative in situ hybridization.

We Y-27632 2HCl found that mGluR8 mRNA levels were profoundly increased in the dorsal (caudate putamen) and ventral (nucleus accumbens) striatum 1 day after the discontinuation of amphetamine treatments. Such increases were sustained up to 21 days of withdrawal. Increases in mGluR8 mRNAs were also found in the cerebral cortex, including the cingulate and sensory cortex but not the piriform cortex, at 1 and 21 days. These data demonstrate a positive response of mGluR8 in mRNA abundance in most forebrain regions to repeated stimulant exposure. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All fights reserved.”
“Aim: The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of the three crucial factors, galactose concentration, inoculum size and moisture content, on alpha-galactosidase production by the filamentous actinobacterium Streptomyces griseoloalbus in solid-state fermentation.

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