(C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved “
“The three atte

(C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The three attenuated strains Sabin are used as oral vaccine to immunize against poliomyelitis in many countries.

Low vaccine coverage can selleck chemicals llc allow these strains to circulate among non-immunized people, accumulating genetic modifications through nucleotide substitutions and recombination with non-polio enteroviruses. These modifications can induce a loss of attenuation, so promoting the emergence of pathogenic vaccine-derived polioviruses responsible for poliomyelitis outbreaks.

In vitro-engineered chimeric viruses containing both Sabin and non-polio sequences constitute a powerful tool for understanding the constraints that drive and limit the recombination events between the Sabin strains and other enteroviruses and to understand the consequences on the viral phenotypic properties of substitutions of large genomic regions due to recombination events.

A method was optimized that allowed the rapid production of customized Sabin-derived viruses. By using sequences from Sabin 2 and 3 polioviruses and from non-polio field enteroviruses, several recombinant genomes were engineered by using fusion PCR. The corresponding viruses were Wortmannin clinical trial recovered after cell transfection.


method was found able to generate rapidly a wide range of unnatural viruses with multiple breakpoints that can be chosen precisely. Furthermore, this method is also suitable to engineer nucleotide deletions, insertions and/or substitutions within a given genome, so increasing the number of unnatural viruses that can be studied. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Recent reviews

pinpointed the enormous diversity of proteins found in living organisms, especially in higher eukaryotes. Protein diversity is driven through three main processes: first, at deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) level (i.e. gene polymorphisms), Carbohydrate second, at precursor messenger ribonucleic acid (pre-mRNA) or messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) level (i.e. alternative splicing, also termed as differential splicing) and, finally, at the protein level (i.e. PTM). Current proteomic technologies allow the identification, characterization and quantitation of up to several thousands of proteins in a single experiment. Nevertheless, the identification and characterization of protein species using these technologies are still hampered. Here, we review the use of the terms “”protein species”" and “”protein isoform.”" We evidence that the appropriate selection of the database used for searches can impede or facilitate the identification of protein species. We also describe examples where protein identification search engines systematically fail in the attribution of protein species.

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