In this review, we briefly examine the current state of knowledge

In this review, we briefly examine the current state of knowledge from studies of cognitive remediation in Crenigacestat supplier psychiatry and we highlight open questions. We then present a systems neuroscience rationale for successful cognitive training for neuropsychiatric illnesses, one that emphasizes the distributed nature of neural assemblies that support cognitive and affective processing,

as well as their plasticity. It is based on the notion that, during successful learning, the brain represents the relevant perceptual and cognitive/affective inputs and action outputs with disproportionately larger and more coordinated populations of neurons that are distributed (and that are interacting) across multiple levels of processing and throughout multiple brain regions. This approach allows us to address limitations found in earlier research and to introduce important

principles for the design and evaluation of the next generation of cognitive training for impaired neural systems. We summarize work to date using such neuroscience-informed methods and indicate VX-689 mouse some of the exciting future directions of this field. Neuropsychopharmacology Reviews (2012) 37, 43-76; doi: 10.1038/npp.2011.251; published online 2 November 2011″
“Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiological agent of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) and at least two B cell lymphoproliferative diseases: primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and multicentric Castleman’s disease (MCD). B cells derived from PEL are latently infected, and can be induced to lytic replication by treatment with chemical agents like TPA or butyrate, which have pleiotropic effects on host cell signaling and chromatin structure. Most of these lines also display moderate levels of spontaneous lyric induction, which complicates analysis of latency. Here we describe the creation of latently infected cell Endonuclease lines derived from SLK endothelial

cells that (i) display tight control of KSHV latency, with little spontaneous reactivation and (ii) are efficiently inducible by doxycycline, avoiding the need for pleiotropic inducing agents. These cells produce substantial quantities of infectious KSHV, and should be useful for studies of the latent-lyric switch and the impact of lyric replication on host cell biology. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Classically, neurons communicate by anterograde conduction of action potentials. However, information can also pass backward along axons, a process that is essential during the development of the nervous system. Here we propose a role for such ‘retroaxonal’ signals in adult learning.

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