New genomes may reveal new surprises, and often identify new MGEs

New genomes may reveal new surprises, and often identify new MGEs [41]. Conclusions In summary, the similarity of surface and immune evasion genes in S. aureus strains from different animal hosts with very different target proteins is surprising and suggests specific host-pathogen interactions via these proteins are not essential for virulence. However, variation in S. aureus Caspase Inhibitor VI research buy proteins is predominantly in predicted

functional regions and there is some biological evidence that variant bacterial proteins can have similar functions [24]. This argues that specific host-pathogen interactions of these proteins are essential for virulence. This is an area of research that requires further investigation. Importantly, vaccine development should utilise information on the variation, distribution and function of surface protein antigens amongst lineages to ensure that cocktails of gene variants are included. Otherwise vaccines Eltanexor research buy may fail in human trials,

and/or encourage selection of lineages different to those of laboratory strains, including CA-MRSA. Methods Staphylococcus aureus genomes Sequence data is available for the genomes of 58 Staphylococcus aureus isolates on the GenBank database http://​www.​ncbi.​nlm.​nih.​gov and the Broad Institute website http://​www.​broadinstitute.​org/​. The source and accession numbers of these genomes is shown in table 1. The genetic sequence of an additional 3 S. aureus genomes was made available by Matt Holden (EMRSA-15 and LGA251; Sanger Centre, Amino acid UK) and Ad Fluit (S0385; University Medical Centre Utrecht, Netherlands). Strains are of human origin except strain RF122 which is a bovine mastitis isolate, strain LGA25 1 from a bovine infection, strain ED98 from a diseased broiler chicken, and strain ST398 isolated from a human but likely from pig origin. Sequence analysis was therefore performed on the genomes of 58 S. aureus isolates that represent 18 different multi locus sequence types (MLST) (ST1, ST5, ST7, ST8, ST22, ST30, ST34, ST36, ST42,

ST45, ST72, ST105, ST145, ST151, ST239, ST250, ST398, ST425 and ST431) and 15 different clonal complex (CC) lineages (CC1, CC5, CC7, CC8, CC10, CC22, CC30, CC42, CC45, CC72, CC151, CC239, CC398, CC425 and CC431) (Table 1). It should be noted that some of the genomes are not complete, and some may have minor errors that lead to the overestimation of truncated proteins. Sequence analysis of Staphylococcus aureus genes The sequence of each gene in a genome was first 3-MA research buy identified using the BLAST function of the GenBank database http://​www.​ncbi.​nlm.​nih.​gov/​blast. Sequences of a gene were subsequently aligned using the ClustalW program and then edited by hand if necessary in BioEdit [42, 43]. Domains of S. aureus proteins were identified using the UniProt resource of protein sequence and function http://​www.​uniprot.​org and/or from previous literature.

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