Other accessions that showed particularly useful differentiating

Other accessions that showed particularly useful differentiating ability were Olathe and 51051. Of these, only Redlands Pioneer has been included in the 2002 differential set. The PCoA grouping of the African races was similar to that of the southern African race-groups. “
“The Cerrado biome represents a hotspot of biodiversity. Despite this, the nematofauna in this biome has not been well characterized, especially that related to root-knot nematodes. This work aimed to identify Meloidogyne species present in different

cerrado vegetations and to investigate potential hosts of Meloidogyne javanica in this biome. Soil samples (250) were collected in native areas of cerrado vegetation located at the National Park of Brasília (PNB) (125 samples) and Água Limpa Farm (FAL) (125 samples), and transferred to sterile pots. Single tomato selleck products plants cv. Santa Clara (susceptible) were transplanted into individual pots and maintained for 90 days under glasshouse. Females of Meloidogyne spp. were extracted from tomato roots and identified based upon esterase phenotypes and confirmed

with PCR using specific sequence characterized amplified regions (SCAR) primers. Native plants were inoculated with 10 000 individuals (eggs + J2) of a pure culture of M. javanica and maintained under glasshouse for 6 months. From the 250 samples collected, 57 (22.8%) presented Meloidogyne spp. A total of 66 Meloidogyne populations were identified as follows: M. javanica (75.76%),

M. incognita (10.60%), M. hapla (9.1%), M. morocciensis (3.03%) and M. arenaria (1.51%). The following esterase phenotypes were detected: M. javanica AZD1208 mw (J3 and J2), M. incognita (I1 and I2), M. hapla (H1), M. morocciensis (A3) and M. arenaria (A2). The SCAR primers incK14F/incK14R, Fjav/Rjav and Fh/Rh amplified specific fragments in M. incognita (399 bp), M. javanica (670 bp) and M. hapla (610 bp) and can be used for identification of indigenous Meloidogyne spp. from cerrado. The primer set Far/Rar is not specific for M. arenaria due Quinapyramine to the amplification of DNA in M. morocciensis. Mimosa caesalpiniifolia was the only native plant in which M. javanica developed a high reproductive rate, and it is probably a host for this nematode in cerrado. “
“Three isolates of Tomato torrado virus (ToTV) were found in Poland. The isolates were characterized on the basis of their symptomatology on plant species, serological reactions, electron microscopy, and nucleotide and amino acid sequence analyses of coat protein subunit genes. In comparative tests, the Polish ToTV isolates were shown to be closely related to each other and also to the isolate from Spain. “
“Powdery mildews, caused by Golovinomyces cichoracearum and Podosphaera xanthii, are the most common and severe diseases of cucurbits in the Mediterranean basin. In southern Italy, only P. xanthii is apparently present.

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