PA is significantly reduced in Os-lpa-XS110-2 (similar to 20%) and in 4A-02500 (similar to 90%) seeds compared with their wild type lines, and no PA was detected in Os-lpa-XS110-3 using HPLC analysis. This evidence indicates that the OsMRP5 gene plays an important role in PA metabolism in rice seeds.”
“The Brazilian rosewood (Dalbergia nigra) selleck screening library is an endangered tree endemic to the central Brazilian Atlantic Forest, one of the world’s most threatened biomes. The population diversity,
phylogeographic structure and demographic history of this species were investigated using the variation in the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequences of 185 individuals from 19 populations along the geographical range of the species. Fifteen haplotypes were detected in the analysis
of 1297 bp from two non-coding sequences, trnV-trnM and trnL. We identified a strong genetic structure (F(ST) = 0.62, P<0.0001), with a latitudinal click here separation into three phylogeographic groups. The two northernmost groups showed evidence of having maintained historically larger populations than the southern-most group. Estimates of divergence times between these groups pointed to vicariance events in the Middle Pleistocene (ca. 350 000-780 000 years ago). The recurrence of past climatic changes in the central part of the Atlantic forest, with cycles of forest expansion and contraction, may have led to repeated vicariance events, resulting in the genetic differentiation of these groups. Based on comparisons among the populations of large reserves and small, disturbed fragments of the same phylogeographic group, we also found evidence of recent anthropogenic effects on genetic diversity. The results were also analysed with the aim of contributing to the conservation of D. nigra. We suggest that the three phylogeographic groups could be considered as three distinct management units. Based on the genetic diversity and uniqueness of the populations, we also indicate priority areas for conservation. Heredity (2011) 106, 46-57; doi:10.1038/hdy.2010.64; published online 2 June 2010″
“Full-field quantitative strain maps of phase
transformation and plasticity this website in Nitinol under large shear-dominated deformation are presented. To achieve a shear-dominated deformation mode with relatively uniform stresses and strains, a shear compression specimen (SCS) geometry was utilized. Shear deformation appears to impede the development of the strain localization during phase transformation that is seen in uniaxial testing. The shear-dominant deformation of Nitinol in the plastic regime exhibits low hardening and results in the development of significant strain inhomogeneity.”
“Integrative taxonomy, in which multiple disciplines are combined to address questions related to biological species diversity, is a valuable tool for identifying pelagic marine fish larvae and recognizing the existence of new fish species.