Protein supplementation led to a 1% to 2% increase in BMD at the lumbar spine, but there was no strong evidence for a reduced risk of hip fracture. In older individuals with poor oral intake and low protein consumption, a healthy diet that included dairy products (mainly fat free), fruit and vegetables,
and adequate amounts of meat, fish, and poultry nonetheless increased insulin-like growth factor I, an enzyme positively related to musculoskeletal health . The Framingham Osteoporosis Study MEK162 mw studied 946 elderly men and women and observed that individuals with a protein intake at the upper quartile had a 37% decreased risk of hip fracture . Data VS-4718 price from large prospective studies are nevertheless needed to confirm this finding. Although the effect on fracture prevention is controversial, a balanced diet with adequate protein intake can prevent weight loss, muscle wasting, and sarcopenia—important risk factors for frailty and falls. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is common in the elderly hip fracture patients. Vitamin D is rare this website in food. The major source of Vitamin D is synthesis of cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3) from its precursors in the skin under the effect of ultraviolet light. Vitamin D insufficiency is more prevalent in older subjects due to less efficient synthesis of Vitamin D3 in the skin , decreased renal production
of 25OHD  and decreased gastrointestinal absorption of calcium in response to 1,25OHD . Vitamin D deficiency is defined in the presence of osteomalacia Loperamide (25OHD < 25 nmol/L), while insufficiency is defined as the occurrence of secondary hyperparathyroidism with 25OHD 25 to 50 nmol/L . The optimal serum 25(OH)D is 50 to 80 nmol/L . The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency
and suboptimal serum 25(OH)D among the older population is around 30–50% in most parts of the world [28–31]. Vitamin D is the key to intestinal absorption of calcium, and hence ensuring calcium and vitamin D sufficiency forms a pivotal part of the fracture prevention management protocol. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation improves bone mineralization, reduces bone resorption, corrects secondary hyperparathyroidism and prevents falls . There is also evidence that calcium and vitamin D enhance the anti-fracture efficacy of bisphosphonate agents. Of note, patients in pivotal studies of all anti-osteoporotic agents received calcium and vitamin D supplementation. Thus calcium and vitamin D supplementation is a key component in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis unless calcium intake and vitamin D status are known to be optimal. The difficulty in interpreting studies on the use of calcium and vitamin D for fracture prevention is related to the heterogeneity of studies in terms of study population, treatment doses, preparations, and combinations, baseline calcium and vitamin D intake, baseline 25OHD levels, and compliance with treatment.