Results: A total of 9,749 1-3 days-old F1 female Anopheles mosqui

Results: A total of 9,749 1-3 days-old F1 female Anopheles mosquitoes were exposed to the insecticides. Among the pyrethroids, permethrin, 0.75% had the least knockdown effect, whilst cyfluthrin 0.15%, had the highest knock-down effect. Overall, no difference in susceptibility between An. gambiae 93.3% (95% CI: 92.5-94.1) and An.

funestus 94.5% (95% CI: 93.7-95.3) was observed when exposed to the pyrethroids. click here Similarly, there was no difference in susceptibility between the two vector species (An. gambiae = 79.1% (95% CI: 76.6-81.8) and An. funestus = 83.5% (95% CI: 80.2-86.4) when exposed to DDT. Overall susceptibility to the insecticides was between 80% and 98%, suggesting that there is some level of resistance, except for cyfluthrin 0.15%. find more The kdr PCR assay however, did not reveal any kdr mutations. The analysis also revealed only the molecular M (Mopti) form.

Conclusion: The findings in this study show

that An. gambiae and An. funestus, the main malaria vector mosquitoes in the Kassena-Nankana district are susceptible to the insecticides being used in the treatment of bed nets in the malaria control programme. There is however, the need for continuous monitoring of the pyrethroids as the efficacy is not very high.”
“Background: Recent studies have shown that urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is rapidly up-regulated early after murine renal injury, and in patients after cardiac Surgery or patients critically ill with multiple trauma. In this study, we evaluated urinary NGAL levels as a potential biomarker of early acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI).

Methods: All patients with severe TBI admitted to our neurosurgical intensive care unit from March to September 2011 were enrolled prospectively: Urinary NGAL was measured using a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay upon admission and at 24 and, 48 hours after TBI. The presence of AKI was defined by 1 the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria.

Results: Using AKIN criteria, a total of 13 patients

were identified with AKI, an incidence of 24%. Those who subsequently developed AKI had a striking rise in urinary NGAL early after TBI and a sustained increase over the Epoxomicin chemical structure entire duration of the study. The urinary NGAL level of the AKI group was significantly higher than the group without AKI at all time points. Using a cutoff value of 53.9 ng/mL, the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for urinary NGAL at 48 hours was 0.876 with a sensitivity of 0.69 and specificity of 0.95.

Conclusions: Increased urinary NGAL is associated with an increased occurrence of AKI in patients with severe TBI. It is possible that urinary NGAL could provide a screening tool for AKI immediately after severe TBI, and this may in turn allow early intervention to ameliorate the adverse effects of AKI.

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