Results and discussion Buckyball assembly In practice, buckyballs need to be assembled (shown in Figure 1) so as to protect materials/devices. Various stacking arrays are investigated as follows. 1-D alignment buckyball system The C 720 can be arranged both vertically and horizontally in a 1-D chain-like alignment. Figure 6 shows the mechanical behavior of
a five-buckyball array subjecting to a rigid plate impact with impact energy and speed of 9.16 eV and 50 m/s respectively. Progressive buckling and bowl-shape forming behavior takes the full advantage of single buckyball energy absorption ability one by one and controls the force on the receiver within a relatively TSA HDAC mouse low value during first section of Navitoclax price deformation (within W/D < 1.5) which provides cushion protections. Figure 6 Characteristic normalized force-displacement curve of 1-D system with vertically lined C 720 buckyballs. The characteristic normalized force-displacement curve see more of 1-D system with five vertically lined C720s at impact speed of 50 m/s. Another 1-D arrangement direction is normal to a plate
impact. Unlike the progressive buckling behavior in the vertical system, all buckyballs buckle simultaneously in the horizontal array. Figure 7 shows the scenario with impact energy of 1.83 eV per buckyball and impact speed of 50 m/s, where the total reaction force scales with the number of buckyballs. Systems with different buckyball numbers show almost uniform deformation characteristics of individual buckyballs. Figure 7 Characteristic normalized force-displacement curve of 1-D buckyball system with various numbers of horizontally lined C 720 buckyballs. The characteristic normalized force-displacement curve of 1-D buckyball system with various numbers of horizontally lined C720s at
impact speed of 50 m/s. The energy absorption per unit mass (UME, J/g) and unit volume (UVE, J/cm3) are given isometheptene in Figure 8, which shows that the UME and UVE are almost invariant regardless of buckyball number or arrangement. In Figure 8 the impact energy per buckyball is fixed as 1.83 eV; if the impact energy or speed changes, the value of UME or UVE alters; however, the result is still insensitive to buckyball number or arrangement. The major responsible reason is that the energy absorption ability of the system stems from the non-recoverable deformation of individual buckyball which is almost uniform. Figure 8 UME and UVE values of both vertical and horizontal buckyball systems with various buckyball numbers. UME and UVE values of both vertical and horizontal buckyball systems with various buckyball numbers at impact speed of 50 m/s. By fixing either the impact speed or mass and varying the other parameter, the impact energy per buckyball can be varied. It imposes a nonlinear influence on the UME and the maximum force on the receiver, as shown in Figure 9 for the vertical alignment of five-buckyball system.