The association between the incidence of clinical malaria attacks

The association between the incidence of clinical malaria attacks and independent GNS-1480 purchase variables, i.e. presence of antibodies to allelic families, age, haemoglobin type or ethnic group, was tested. Statistical analysis Yearly distribution of the 524 PCR fragments by allelic family was analysed by Pearson Chi2 with the assumption that the alleles co-infecting

the same individual were independent. Allelic family distribution by gender, age, Hb type, ABO group, Rhesus group and by month was analysed by Fisher’s exact test. The allelic family infection rate (percentage of infected individuals harbouring one or more alleles from that family) by gender, β-globin type, ABO or Rhesus blood group, by age (0-1 y, 2-5 y, 6-9 y, 10-19 y and ≥20 y) and by season in the year was analysed by Fisher’s

exact test. For the analysis of seasonality, the year was divided into three periods based on the rains, the vectors present and the entomological inoculation rate. The mean entomological inoculation rate was 32, 140 and 39 infected bites/person/year in February-May (dry season), June-October (rainy season), and November-January, respectively. The estimated multiplicity of infection was first analysed using a zero-truncated Poisson regression model, with the assumption of a constant probability to detect an additional allele in a homogeneous carrier population. The mean predicted estimated moi was 1.193 allele/infected individual. The predicted distribution was calculated, grouping the classes with estimated moi ≥ 4 and did not differ from the observed one (51.6% vs. 51.9%, PKC412 29.4% vs. 31%, 15.0% vs. 12.3%, 3.9% vs. 3.7% for observed vs. predicted estimated moi 1, 2, 3 and ≥4, respectively (Chi2 test, 3 df ≥ 2.53, p = 0.47). Estimated moi distribution by age group (0-1 y, 2-5 y, 6-9 y, 10-19 y and ≥20 y), gender, Hb type, ABO group, Rhesus blood group, year, month of the year and season was analysed by non parametric Kruskal-Wallis test. Acknowledgements We are EGFR inhibitor indebted to the Dielmo villagers for their invaluable help and commitment to participate in the longitudinal study. The dedication of Hilaire Bouganali

in Bay 11-7085 microscopy slide reading deserves special thanks. We also thank the field medical staff, the village workers and the entomology team for their dedication over the ten year period, in particular Didier Fontenille, Laurence Lochouarn and Ibrahima Dia. We thank Thierry Fandeur for insightful comments on the manuscript. This work was funded by the Prix Louis D of the French Academy of Sciences as well as by the Génopole, Institut Pasteur. NN was supported by a PhD fellowship from the Royal Golden Jubilee, Thailand Research Fund and from the EU-funded grant QLK2-CT-2002-01503 (RESMALCHIP). Electronic supplementary material Additional file 1: Distribution frequency of Pfmsp1 block2 fragment size in Dielmo, Senegal.

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