The exact mechanisms for the decline in cognitive function after WBRT remain elusive and no treatment or preventative measures are available for use in the clinic. Here, we review recent findings indicating how changes in the neurovascular unit may contribute to the impairments in learning and memory. In addition to affecting neuronal development, WBRT induces
profound capillary rarefaction within the hippocampus – a region of the brain important for learning and memory. Therapeutic strategies such as hypoxia, which restore the capillary density, result in the rescue of cognitive function. In addition to decreasing vascular density, WBRT impairs vasculogenesis and/or angiogenesis, which may also contribute to radiation-induced cognitive decline. Further studies aimed at uncovering the specific selleck kinase inhibitor mechanisms Lapatinib manufacturer underlying these WBRT-induced changes in the cerebrovasculature are essential for developing therapies to mitigate the deleterious effects of WBRT on cognitive function. (C) 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“A process for the production of a thermostable variant of a microbial
transglutaminase was developed. The transglutaminase variant produced, carried a single amino acid exchange (serine replaced by proline at position 2) and showed a nearly doubled specific activity of 46.1 U mg(-1) compared to the wild-type enzyme. Based on a model based optimization strategy, intracellular soluble production in Escherichia coli was optimized. After parameter identification and only two fed-batch cultivations, a space time yield of 1438 U(TG) L(-1) h(-1) was obtained which is 175% higher than the highest values published so far (extracellular production using Corynebacterium ammoniagenes). High carbon source concentrations during expression were found to increase the product formation. Prior to the fed-batch cultivation, the host strain was adapted from complex medium to minimal medium by serial dilution. Upon transfer to
the minimal medium, initially the maximal growth rate dropped to 0.13 h(-1). After the six consecutive Fossariinae cultivations the rate increased to 0.47 h(-1) and the portion of the complex medium was reduced to 1 ppm. Using the adapted cells, temperature after induction and IPTG-concentration were investigated by satellite batch cultivation according to a Design of Experiment (DoE) plan. The product yield was strongly influenced by the temperature after induction but not by the inductor concentration. The highest specific activity of 1386 U g(-1) bio dry mass was obtained at 29 degrees C and 0.7 mM IPTG. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Within the last 25 years, it has become increasingly clear that high dietary salt intake represents a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease that is independent of its well-known ability to increase arterial pressure in some individuals.