The observational nature of TAHOD means that treatment failure was identified depending on the local clinic approach, which would differ across the TAHOD sites. The frequency of CD4 testing and HIV viral load measurement varies significantly across the TAHOD sites, and, in particular, there is no systematic monitoring of CD4 and/or HIV viral load testing at TAHOD sites according to a standardized visit schedule. These issues relating to differences in monitoring among sites may result in underestimation of the overall rate of treatment failure and hence actual treatment modification may have been deferred for even longer
times. However, the main objective of this paper was to examine the time CHIR-99021 cost from any documented treatment failure to any treatment change. The failures we analysed were documented treatment failures, and so might be expected to give an indication of real-life clinical practice in this region. In addition, adherence data are not collected in TAHOD, and it is possible that in the presence of failure another reason for the delay in treatment switch may be that clinicians were trying to improve adherence to the existing RG7422 cell line regimen before definitively
declaring treatment failure. Furthermore, as TAHOD participating sites are generally urban referral centres, and each site recruits approximately 200 patients who are judged to have a reasonably good prospect of long-term follow-up, TAHOD patients may not be entirely representative of HIV-infected patients GABA Receptor in the Asia and Pacific region. Finally, a more thorough analysis would include the survival outcome of treatment change after treatment failure was identified. However, because of the limited number and
follow-up of patients who have treatment modification after failure, this analysis is currently underpowered, and a further analysis will be performed when TAHOD has more follow-up data. Deferred modification of regimen following treatment failure in many Asian countries following rapid scale-up of antiretroviral treatment is likely to have negative implications for accumulation of drug resistance and response to second-line treatment which incorporates agents from the N(t)RTI class. There is a need to scale up the availability of agents for use in second-line regimens and implement the use of virological monitoring in this region. The TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database is part of the Asia Pacific HIV Observational Database and is an initiative of TREAT Asia, a programme of The Foundation for AIDS Research (amfAR), with support from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) of the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) as part of the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) (grant no. U01AI069907), and from the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs through a partnership with Stichting Aids Fonds.