Two hours after the last saline or METH injection, mouse brain ti

Two hours after the last saline or METH injection, mouse brain tissues were taken for zif268 mRNA analysis using in situ hybridization histochemistry. In comparison to corresponding saline control group

(group 1), striatal zif268 mRNA levels were unchanged in group 2 and increased in group 3 in both wild-type and mu-OR knockout mice and without genotype difference. METH challenge-enhanced expression of zif268 mRNA was completely abolished by pre-administration of haloperidol (group 4) in mu-OR knockout mice but find more not in wild-type mice. The results suggest a crosstalk of the two neurotransmitter systems in modulation of METH-induced IEG expression, because only in mu-OR knockout mice in which dopamine receptors were blocked were METH-induced zif268 expression abolished. METH-induced zif268 expression was not altered in mu-OR knockout mice without blockade of dopamine receptors or wild-type mice with blockade of dopamine receptors. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Throughout the world, biomonitoring has become the standard for assessing exposure of individuals to toxic elements as well

as for responding to serious environmental public health problems. However, extensive biomonitoring surveys require rapid and simple analytical methods. Thus, a simple and high-throughput method is proposed for the determination of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and selenium (Se) in blood samples by using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Prior to analysis, 200 l of blood samples was mixed with 500 l

of 10% v/v Foretinib tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) solution, incubated for 10 min, and subsequently diluted to 10 ml with a solution containing 0.05% w/v ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) + 0.005% v/v Triton X-100. After that, samples were directly analyzed by ICP-MS (ELAN DRC II). Rhodium was selected as an internal standard with matrix-matching calibration. Method detection limits were 0.08, 0.04, 0.5, 0.09, 0.12, 0.04, and 0.1 g//L for As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Se, respectively. Validation data are provided based on the analysis of blood samples from the trace elements inter-\comparison program operated PD184352 (CI-1040) by the Institut National de Sante Publique du Quebec, Canada. Additional validation was provided by the analysis of human blood samples by the proposed method and by using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The method was subsequently applied for the estimation of background metal blood values in the Brazilian population. In general, the mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Se in blood were 1.1, 0.4, 890, 9.6, 2.1, 65.4, and 89.3 g/L, respectively, and are in agreement with other global populations. Influences of age, gender, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, and geographical variation on the values were also considered. Smoking habits influenced the levels of Cd in blood.

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