braziliensis by nitric

oxide (NO)-dependent mechanisms T

braziliensis by nitric

oxide (NO)-dependent mechanisms. This effect could be mediated by proteins presents into saliva that are uptake by antigen- presenting cells and prime naïve CD4+T cell and CD8+T cells. When the mice are challenged with parasite in the presence of saliva, it triggers a rapid T cells activation and production of IFN-γ. Thus, there is a cross-reactivity of the immune response induced by salivary proteins against Leishmania braziliensis. This hypothesis has been validated in models with salivary proteins. Tozasertib PpSP15 protein derived from Phlebotomus papatasii provided protective immune response against L. major when CYC202 chemical structure the parasite was co-inoculated with P. papatasi SGE by the induction of DTH response [16]. Likewise, the immunization of mice with proteins from Lutzomyia longipalpis, LJM11 and LJM19 induced

the strong DTH and conferred the protective effect against different species of Leishmania (L. major, L. infantum and L. braziliensis) when the mice were challenged with parasite and SGE [35–39]. Interestingly, such responses were similar with that previously obtained using a natural sensitization with bites of uninfected sand fly [15]. Several pieces of evidence have shown that Phlebotomine saliva enhances the infectivity of many different Leishmania species, which can be attributed to numerous substances within the saliva that harbor pharmacological properties that induce vasodilatation, anticoagulation, anti-inflammation and immunomodulation. Thus, the active salivary constituents could serve as a prototype for the development of

vaccines to control pathogen transmission. Our group is currently working on the isolation of compounds within the saliva of several blood-feeding arthropods, including Phlebotomine vectors. We recently identified LB-100 ic50 adenosine (ADO) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) as major immunomodulatory compounds present within the Old World sand fly species Phlebotomus papatasii, which protected mice from extreme inflammatory insults [40]. Salivary protein (SP)-15 is also present in P. papatasi, and SP-15 provides a protective effect against Pomalidomide chemical structure Leishmania major infection through an IFN-γ-dependent mechanism [16]. In the present study, neither ADO and AMP nor SP-15 is involved in the effect of SGE on Leishmania infection because they are not found in Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva. Maxadilan (MAX) is a potent vasodilator present in L. longipalpis saliva that exacerbates Leishmania sp. infection. Mice vaccinated with recombinant MAX were markedly protected from Leishmania infection, and this protective effect was associated with an increase in CD4+ T cells, IFN-γ and NO [14].

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