Here, we characterized

a transposon insertion (legwd::Ds)

Here, we characterized

a transposon insertion (legwd::Ds) in the tomato GWD (LeGWD) gene that caused male gametophytic lethality. The mutant pollen had a starch excess phenotype that was associated with a reduction selleck compound in pollen germination. SEM and TEM analyses indicated mild shrinking of the pollen grains and the accumulation of large starch granules inside the plastids. The level of soluble sugars was reduced by 1.8-fold in mutant pollen grains. Overall, the transmission of the mutant allele was only 0.4% in the male, whereas it was normal in the female. Additional mutant alleles, obtained through transposon excision, showed the same phenotypes as legwd::Ds. Moreover, pollen germination could be restored, and the starch excess phenotype could be abolished β-Nicotinamide in lines expressing the potato GWD homolog (StGWD) under a pollen-specific promoter. In these lines, where fertility was restored, homozygous plants for legwd::Ds were isolated, and showed the starch excess phenotype in the leaves. Overall, our results demonstrate the importance of starch phosphorylation and breakdown for pollen germination, and open up the prospect for analyzing the role of starch metabolism in leaves and fruits.”
“Objective. To demonstrate the role of Wnt/beta-catenin canonical pathway in postmenopausal osteoporosis by evaluating serum beta-catenin

levels in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis and analyzing their possible relationship with serum OPG, RANKL, the ratio of RANKL/OPG, this website sclerostin, and bone turnover markers. Methods.

480 patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis and 170 healthy postmenopausal women were enrolled in the study. Serum beta-catenin, OPG, RANKL, and sclerostin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Bone status was assessed by measuring bone mineral density and bone turnover markers. Estradiol levels were also detected. Results. Serum beta-catenin levels were lower in postmenopausal osteoporotic women compared to nonosteoporotic postmenopausal women (26.26 +/- 14.81 versus 39.33 +/- 5.47 pg/mL, P < 0.001). Serum beta-catenin was positively correlated with osteoprotegerin (r = 0.232, P < 0.001) and negatively correlated with the ratio of RANKL/OPG, body mass index, and sclerostin (r = -0.128, P = 0.005; r = -0.117, P = 0.010; r = -0.400, P < 0.001, resp.) in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Conclusion. The results indicate that lower serum beta-catenin and concomitantly higher ratio of RANKL/OPG may be involved in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Functional communication between RANKL/RANK/OPG system and Wnt pathways plays an important role in postmenopausal osteoporosis.”
“We characterized two overlapping sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones representing different haplotypes. A total of 254 kbp of the genomic sequence was determined, of which the two BACs share 92 kbp.

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