DUBC was managed by open excision in 24 cases, by transurethral e

DUBC was managed by open excision in 24 cases, by transurethral electrosurgery in 17 cases, and by transurethral Tm-laser in 17 cases. Perioperative measures and oncologic outcomes were compared among the three groups. Furthermore, 11 human ureteral segments were collected to measure the burst

pressure and show physical pressure tolerance, and six ureteral segments were assessed histologically to investigate the sealing effect. Operative time and hospital stay were significantly longer, and intraoperative blood loss was significantly greater in the open excision group than in the electrosurgery and Tm-laser groups (P < 0.05 for all). There were no significant differences in these parameters between the electrosurgery and Tm-laser groups. In addition, there were no significant differences selleck screening library in the incidences of bladder tumors and retroperitoneal recurrence of urothelial carcinoma selleck chemical among the three groups. The coagulation time and resection time were significantly shorter in the Tm-laser group than in the electrosurgery group. The mean burst pressure did not differ significantly between the tissues

sealed by electrosurgery and by Tm-laser. Histopathological analyses showed that distal ureters were completely sealed by both electrosurgery and Tm-laser. The Tm-laser technique is superior to open excision and comparable to transurethral electrosurgery in the management of DUBC during nephroureterectomy for UUT-UC, offering an alternative treatment option for this condition.”
“Objective: To examine the nature and extent of unmet prescription medication need (UPMN) in children and its predictors using the 2003 National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH).

Design: Retrospective cross-sectional survey.

Setting: Sulfobutylether-β-Cyclodextrin United States in 2003-2004.

Participants: Parents or guardians who knew most about child’s (<18 years of age) health and health care and reported about their children’s prescription medication use.

Intervention: NSCH-a population-based telephone survey-based on complex probability sampling design.

Main outcome measures:

Nature and extent of UPMN in children and predictors of UPMN for any reason and as a result of cost, health plan problems, and lack of insurance within the conceptual framework of the Andersen behavioral model.

Results: According to NSCH, 0.54 million (95% CI 0.46-0.62) or 1.23% (1.05-1.41%) of children experienced UPMN. The highest prevalence of UPMN was seen among blacks (2.3%), families with income less than 200% of federal poverty level (2.4%), and those having good, fair, or poor perceived health status (3.2%). A high prevalence of UPMN was also found in children with gained (5.3%), lost (3.7%), or no insurance (6.4%). Among children with UPMN, 35.39% (28.56-42.23%) did not receive medications because of cost, 26.51% (20.28-32.74%) because of health plan problems, and 40.73% (33.21-48.24%) because of lack of insurance.

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