Cellular extracts (30 μg) were incubated in a 96-well microtitre

Cellular extracts (30 μg) were incubated in a 96-well microtitre plate with 10 μl Ac-DEVD-pNA (2 mM) for 6 h at 37°C. Then caspase-3 activity was quantified in the samples with a microplate spectrophotometer (NanoDrop 2000c, Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., USA) by the absorbance at a wavelength of 405 nm. All experiments were performed in triplicate. Statistical analysis Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS 13.0 software. The relationship between PKCε expression and the clinicopathologic features of RCC was assessed by the Fischer’s exact test. Continuous data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Statistical significance was analyzed

IWP-2 mouse by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Bonferroni’s post-hoc test, with values of P < 0.05 considered statistically significant. Results PKCε expression in renal tissues The expression of PKCε protein in 15 specimens of normal renal tissues and 128 specimens of RCC was detected by immunohistochemistry SAR302503 with an anti-PKCε

monoclonal antibody. PKCε expression was weak in normal renal tissues, but strong in both cytoplasm and nuclei of RCC cells (Figure 1). The level of PKCε overexpression was significantly STA-9090 higher in RCC than in normal tissues (63.3% vs. 26.7%, P = 0.006). When stratified by pathologic type, no significant difference was observed among clear cell, papillary, and chromophobe RCCs (62.0% vs. 60.0% and 80.0%, P = 0.517). PKCε overexpression showed no relationship with the sex and age of patients with clear cell RCC (both P > 0.05), but was related with higher T stage (P < 0.05) and higher Fuhrman grade (P < 0.01) (Table 1). Figure 1 Immunohistochemical staining of PKCε in tissue specimens. PKCε is overexpressed in click here both cytoplasm and nuclei of clear cell renal cell carcinoma

(RCC) cells (A). Primary antibody isotype control (B) and normal renal cells (C) show no or minimal staining. The original magnification was ×200 for left panels and ×400 for right panels. Table 1 PKCε overexpression in human clear cell renal cell carcinoma tissues Group Cases PKCε overexpression P value     (-) (+)   Sex Men 69 24 45 0.365 Women 39 17 22   Age ≤ 55 years 43 16 27 0.599 >55 years 65 21 44   T stage T1/T2 89 38 51 0.028 T3/T4 19 3 16   Fuhrman grade G1/G2 86 39 47 0.002 G3/G4 22 2 20   PKCε, protein kinase C epsilon. PKCε expression in renal cell cancer cell lines We detected the expression of PKCε in five RCC cell lines using Western blot. PKCε was expressed in all five RCC cell lines at various levels, with the maximum level in clear cell RCC cell line 769P (Figure 2A). Immunocytochemical staining showed that PKCε was mainly expressed in both cytoplasm and nuclei, sometimes on the membrane, of 769P cells (Figure 2B).

By considering the

By considering the temperature differences of 50°C, this compositional

difference (i.e., indium rich in the layer in LOHN formed by VLS mechanism) is still significant that may come from the different growth mechanism [31]. The higher In composition in the VLS mechanism may be due to the precipitation of the InGaN phase from the thermodynamically supersaturated In-Ga-Ni-Au liquid phase that has a higher In/Ga ratio than the atmosphere. Our analysis shows that the composition of the metal catalyst of In-Ga-Ni-Au is ca. 20%, 10%, 20%, and 50%, respectively, when prepared under the same ratio of TMIn and TMGa in the atmosphere. This indicates that the InGaN layer in the LOHN is different from that in the COHN because it shifts to the indium-rich sides, owing to the indium-rich supersaturated PF-04929113 composition of the liquid metal catalyst. Although only one

composition is reported here, our further study shows that the composition of the InGaN layers grown by VLS mechanism via a catalyst can be controlled by the processing temperature from 0% to 50%. This indicates that the composition of the InGaN layer in LOHN can also be tuned easily by the processing temperature. Figure 4b shows the micro-PL of the individual nanowire of the GaN/In0.4Ga0.6N LOHN. A green emission can be seen at the InGaN layer with a wavelength of 520 nm. It indicates that the optical properties of the vertical MK-4827 in vitro GaN ever nanowires can be tuned by fabricating the LOHN by a VLS mechanism via bi-metal catalysts. Conclusions In summary, we have achieved the vertical growth of GaN nanowires via a VLS mechanism using Au/Ni bi-metal catalysts, which leads

to the growth of nanowires without the interfacial layer between the nanowires and the substrate and, in turn, enables their vertical growth. TEM studies have shown that the GaN nanowires are single-crystalline and dislocation-free. The vertical GaN/InGaN COHN can then be fabricated by subsequent deposition of InxGa1-xN shell onto the GaN nanowires. The vertical GaN/InGaN LOHN can also be fabricated by the subsequent growth of an InGaN layer using the catalyst. These outcomes demonstrate that bi-metal catalysts are click here versatile for the vertically aligned as well as the heterostructure GaN nanowires. Optical studies of the COHN and LOHN have demonstrated InGaN composition-dependant emission from 405 to 520 nm. Vertically aligned GaN and heterostructure nanowires (COHN, LOHN) with tunable optical properties can be expected to be useful for the fabrication of high-performance optoelectronic devices. Acknowledgements This work was supported by a grant (no. 2012R1A2A1A03010558) from the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) and the Pioneer Research Program for Converging Technology (2009-008-1529) of the Korea Science and Engineering Foundation, funded by the Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology, Korea.

5 × 3 μm diam , cell wall 2–3 μm thick (Fig  39b and c) Hamathec

5 × 3 μm diam., cell wall 2–3 μm thick (Fig. 39b and c). Hamathecium of dense, delicate pseudoparaphyses, 1–1.5 μm broad, septate, branching and anastomosing between and above asci, embedded in mucilage.

Asci 75–125 × 10–15 μm (\( \barx = 90.5 \times 12\mu m \), n = 10), 8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate unknown, clavate, with a long, narrowed, furcate pedicel Momelotinib datasheet which is up to 45 μm long, and a low ocular chamber (ca. 2 μm wide × 1 μm high) (Fig. 39d, e and f). Ascospores 15–18 × 5.5–6.5 μm (\( \barx = 16.3 \times 5.8\mu m \), n = 10), biseriate, narrowly ovoid to clavate, pale brown, 3-distoseptate, without constriction, smooth-walled (Fig. 39g, h and i). Anamorph: none reported. Material examined: BELGIUM, Dolembreux, on branchlets and pieces of stumps of Sarothamnus scoparius from woodland, Oct. 1922, V. Mouton (BR 101525–63, holotype). Notes Morphology Kalmusia was formally established by von Niessl (1872), and is mainly characterized as “immersed, sphaeroid ascoma with central, stout papilla, surrounded by hyphae in the substrate, stipitate asci with septate pseudoparaphyses, and brown, 3-septate, inequilateral ascospores” (Barr 1992a). The most morphologically comparable genus to Kalmusia is Thyridaria, which had been treated as a subgenus under Kalmusia

(Lindau 1897), and was subsequently transferred to Platystomaceae in Melanommatales (Barr 1987b, 1990a). Compared to Thyridaria, Kalmusia has sphaeroid ascomata, a peridium of small pseudoparenchymatous cells, basal asci and very thin pseudoparaphyses, thus it was assigned to Phaeosphaeriaceae of the Fedratinib in vitro Pleosporales by Barr (1990a), and the genus is utilized EPZ015938 clinical trial to accommodate both K. ebuli and K. clivensis (Berk. & Broome) M.E. Barr, as well as closely related species, i.e. K. utahensis (Ellis & Everh.) Huhndorf & M.E. Barr and K. coniothyrium (Fuckel) Huhndorf (Barr 1992a). But this proposal is questionable, as the clavate, distoseptate ascospores, as well as the clavate asci with very long pedicels are uncommon

in Phaeosphaeriaceae, Selleck ZD1839 and most recent phylogenetic study indicated that some species of Kalmusia reside outside of Phaeosphaeriaceae (Zhang et al. 2009a). Phylogenetic study Both Kalmusia scabrispora Teng Kaz. Tanaka, Y. Harada & M.E. Barr and K. brevispora (Nagas. & Y. Otani) Yin. Zhang, Kaz. Tanaka & C.L. Schoch reside in the clade of Montagnulaceae (Zhang et al. 2009a). Familial placement of Kalmusia can only be verified after the DNA sequences of the generic type (K. ebuli) are obtained. Concluding remarks Kalmusia is distinct amongst the Pleosporales as it has pale brown ascospores with indistinct distosepta and clavate asci with long pedicels. Although both K. scabrispora and K. brevispora reside in the clade of Montagnulaceae, they both lack the distoseptate ascospores that are possessed by the generic type (K. ebuli). Thus, the familial placement of Kalmusia is still undetermined.

, J proteomic Res (2002)   Role of CypA in cancer cell progressio

, J proteomic Res (2002)   Role of CypA in cancer cell progression and regulation of JAK2 Zheng et al., Cancer Res (2008) Colorectal Cancer Identification of association ABT737 of CypA with tumor development and tumor progression through protein profiling Melle et al., Int J Mol Med (2005)   Role of CypA in COX-2-independent chemopreventive effect by celecoxib Lou et al., Cancer Epidemiol (2006)   Upregualtion of CypA among5-fluorouracil (5-FU) response proteins for CRC chemotherapy Wong et al., Oncol Rep (2008) Squamous cell carcinoma Involvement in this website oncogenesis in SCC Chen et al., Proteomics (2004)

  Possible role as a malignant transformation-related protein in ESCC Qi et al., J Cell Biochem (2008) Melanoma High level expression in primary and metastatic melanoma Al-Ghoul et al., J Proteome Res (2008) Prostate cancer Preventing hypoxia- and cisplatin-induced apoptosis Choi et al., Cancer res (2007) Glioblastoma multiforme Increasing expression of CypA in human glioblastoma

multiforme www.selleckchem.com/products/sc79.html Han et al., Oncol Rep (2010) Other cyclophilins and cancers Other Cyps including CypB, CypC, CypD and Cyp40 might also play important roles in carcinogenesis. Kim et al. reported that CypB protects cells against ER stress-induced cell death at least partly through blocking the Ca2+ leakage from ER to cytosol [45]. Overexpression of CypB is associated with tumor progression through regulation of hormone receptor expression and gene products involved in cell proliferation and motility [46]. Interestingly, CypB possesses two antigenic epitopes (CypB (82-92) and CypB (91-99)) recognized by HLA-A24-restricted and tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes that are suggested to be used for vaccines against cancers [47]. CypC is another Cyp family member that is primarily located in ER, but

its role remains to be determined. CypC can form a complex with the COOH-terminal fragment of osteopontin. This complex binds to CD147 to activate Akt1/2 and MMP-2 in 4T07 murine breast cancer cells. This CyC- osteopontin complex regulates in vitro migration and invasion properties of 4T1 and 4T07 breast cancer cells [48]. CypD is an important component of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, another components of which are the voltage-dependent outer membrane Fludarabine anion channel, adenine nucleotide translocator [49, 50], and hexokinase. PPIase activity of CypD may be necessary for binding of CypD to the MPTP complex [51]. Although function of CypD in mitochondria is controversial, overexpression of CypD attenuates sensitivity of HEK 293 and rat glioma C6 cells to apoptotic stimuli, with protective effects of CypD requiring PPIase activity [52]. Consistently, several reports have shown that CypD is overexpressed and has an anti-apoptotic effect in various tumors via a Bcl 2 collaborator and an inhibitor of cytochrome c release from mitochondria [53].


Appl Environ Microbiol 2005, 71:8201–8206.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef

Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions PP carried out the collection of the pyrosequencing and patient data, contributed to the statistical analyses of these data sets and helped draft the manuscript. HJ coordinated the collection of the patient specific data and helped to draft the manuscript. AP undertook the culture based analyses of samples. JDP participated in the study design, culture based analyses and coordination and helped to draft the manuscript. CJS generated sequence information and contributed to the statistical analysis. AN contributed to the statistical analyses of these data sets and helped draft the manuscript. CL BVD-523 solubility dmso participated in the design of the study

and performed the statistical analysis. DLS participated in the generation and analysis the sequence data. SPC conceived of the study, and participated in its design and coordination and drafted the manuscript. ADS conceived of the study, and participated in its design and coordination and helped to draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background The extensive use of antimicrobials during the last half century has promoted the evolution of antimicrobial resistance characteristics in pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms [1, 2]. The XAV-939 in vitro selective Sepantronium manufacturer pressures induced by antimicrobial therapies have forced the acquisition and spread of a variety of antimicrobial resistance determinants. Resistance mutations may arise spontaneously or certain organisms may derive these from foreign DNA encountered at sites

of infection. Many organisms have steadily gained resistance due to their ability to uptake DNA from the surrounding much environment and incorporate it into their genome. For example, Falsetta [3] studied N. gonorrhoeae, which is naturally competent and gains resistance by using several systems of DNA uptake to acquire foreign DNA. At the same time, several strains actively release their DNA into the environment. Thus, resistance genes can come from self-organisms and non-self-organisms. In addition to the development of resistance, many pathogenic and opportunistic bacterial species utilize other strategies that enable them to evade clearance from their host, such as of the formation of biofilm structures that are recalcitrant to removal [4]. Although the definition of a biofilm has fluctuated over the last 20 years, classically biofilms are defined as microorganisms that are irreversibly attached to a surface, which are encased in a protective (often self-produced) matrix that may be composed of eDNA, exopolysaccharides, host material, shed membranes, etc. [5, 6]. These organisms tend to work cooperatively to ensure community survival, where some may forfeit active growth [7, 8].

Biochemistry 33:10837–10841 doi:10 ​1021/​bi00201a034 PubMedCros

Biochemistry 33:10837–10841. doi:10.​1021/​bi00201a034 PubMedCrossRef Barzda V, Istokovics A, Sidimidjiev I, Garab G (1996) Structural flexibility of chiral macroaggregates of light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b pigment-protein

complexes. Light-induced reversible structural changes associated with energy dissipation. Biochemistry 35:8981–8985. doi:10.​1021/​bi960114g PubMedCrossRef Boxer SG (1996) Stark spectroscopy of photosynthetic systems. In: Amesz J, Hoff AJ (eds) Biophysical MEK inhibitor techniques in photosynthesis, advances in photosynthesis, vol 3. Kluwer (Springer), Dordrecht, pp 177–189 Breton J, Verméglio A (1982) Orientation of photosynthetic pigments in vivo. In: Govindjee (ed) Photosynthesis. Academic Press, New York, pp 153–193 Brixner T, Stenger J, Vaswani HM, Cho M, ICG-001 purchase Blankenship RE, Fleming GR (2005) Two-dimensional spectroscopy of electronic couplings in photosynthesis. Nature 434:625–628. doi:10.​1038/​nature03429 PubMedCrossRef Büchel C (2003) Fucoxanthin-chlorophyll proteins in diatoms: 18 and 19 kDa subunits assemble into different oligomeric states. Biochemistry 42:13027–13034.

doi:10.​1021/​bi0349468 PubMedCrossRef Büchel C, Garab G (1997) Organization of the pigment molecules in the chlorophyll a/c light-harvesting complex of Pleurochloris meiringensis (Xanthophyceae). Characterization with circular dichroism and absorbance spectroscopy. J Photochem Photobiol B 37:118–124. doi:10.​1016/​S1011-1344(96)07337-X CrossRef Büchel C, Garab G (1998) R788 ic50 Molecular

organisation of the chlorophyll a/c light-harvesting complex of Pleurochloris meiringensis (Xanthophyceae). Pigment binding and secondary structure of the protein. J Photochem Photobiol B 42:191–194. doi:10.​1016/​S1011-1344(98)00069-4 CrossRef Caffarri S, Croce R, Cattivelli L, Bassi R (2004) A look within LHCII: differential analysis of the Lhcb1-3 complexes building the major trimeric antenna complex of higher-plant second photosynthesis. Biochemistry 43:9467–9476. doi:10.​1021/​bi036265i PubMedCrossRef Clayton RK (1980) Photosynthesis. Physical mechanisms and chemical patterns. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Croce R, Remelli R, Varotto C, Breton J, Bassi R (1999) The neoxanthin binding site of the major light harvesting complex (LHCII) from higher plants. FEBS Lett 456:1–6. doi:10.​1016/​S0014-5793(99)00907-2 PubMedCrossRef Croce R, Morosinotto T, Ihalainen JA, Choinicka A, Breton J, Dekker JP, van Grondelle R, Bassi R (2004) Origin of the 701-nm fluorescence emission of the Lhca2 subunit of higher plant photosystem I. J Biol Chem 279:48543–48549. doi:10.​1074/​jbc.​M408908200 PubMedCrossRef Dekker JP, Boekema EJ (2005) Supramolecular organization of thylakoid membrane proteins in green plants. Biochim Biophys Acta 1707:12–39 DeVoe H (1965) Optical properties of molecular aggregates. II. Classical theory of the refraction, absorption, and optical activity of solutions and crystals. J Chem Phys 43:3199–3208. doi:10.​1063/​1.

26 0 06 2 12 0 11 0 07                 c − − + + + + − 77 Symploc

26 0.06 2 12 0.11 0.07                 c − − + + + + − 77 Symplocos odoratissima odoratissima Symplocaceae   4   0.01 selleckchem 1 8 0.08 0.02                 cc + − + + + − − 78 Symplocos ophirensis subsp. cumingiana cumingiana Symplocaceae 3 24 0.20 0.13 1 44 0.04 0.33 4 12 0.56 0.24   4   0.01 c − − + + − − − 79 Adinandra celebica . Theaceae                 4 4 0.64 0.01 3 24 0.71 0.32 + − − − − − − − 80 Adinandra check details masambensis Theaceae   8   0.02 3 12 0.48 0.21         1   0.12   cc − − − − − − − 81 Eurya acuminata Theaceae 1 44

0.14 0.29 5 12 0.28 0.10 2 12 0.21 0.16         + + + + + + + − 82 Gordonia amboinensis Theaceae                 9 16 0.84 0.15 3 8 0.20 0.08 + + + − − − − + 83 Gordonia integerrima Theaceae         17 28 2.09 0.23                 cc − − − + + − − 84 Ternstroemia cf. elongata Theaceae                 1   0.08           (cc) + − − + + − − 85 Wikstroemia androsaemifolia Thymelaeaceae           4   0.01                 cc + + + + +

− − 86 Trimenia papuana Trimeniaceae                 7 16 1.00 0.11 14 28 1.64 0.27 c + + − − − − − 87 Drimys piperita Winteraceae   8   0.03   8   0.03 2 16 0.22 0.17   36   0.18 + + + + + − − − – not identified individuals – 1 4 0.13 0.01 2 8 0.71 0.06 2 4 0.50 0.02                         Structural parameters: iL, individual number of large trees (d.b.h. ≥10 cm) on 0.24 ha plots; iS, individual number of small trees (d.b.h. 2–9.9 cm) scaled up to triclocarban 0.24 ha plots; baL, basal area of large trees ha−1; baS, basal area of small trees ha−1. Distributional data: C Sulawesi; W Wallacea (including the see more Moluccas and Lesser Sunda islands); NG New Guinea; P the Philippines; B Borneo; M other parts of Malesia (including the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, and Java); As, Indo-China; Au Australia. In the Sulawesi record column, C new species records for Sulawesi (c) and new records for the Central Sulawesi province (cc) are designated in comparison to Keßler et al. (2002); c/cc record, c! new

species, (c/cc) probably a new record; [c/cc] was indicated as new record in Culmsee and Pitopang (2009). In the Malesian region records, presence (+) and absence (−) are given in cases of species-level identification References Aiba SI, Kitayama K (1999) Structure, composition and species diversity in an altitude–substrate matrix of rain forest tree communities on Mount Kinabalu, Borneo. Plant Ecol 140:139–157CrossRef Aiba SI, Kitayama K, Repin R (2002) Species composition and species–area relationships of trees in nine permanent plots in altitudinal sequences on different geological substrates of Mount Kinabalu. Sabah Parks Nat J 5:7–69 Airy Shaw HK (1983) The Euphorbiaceae of Central Malesia (Celebes, Moluccas, Lesser Sunda Is.). Kew Bull 37:1–40CrossRef Ashton PS (1988) Dipterocarp biology as a window to the understanding of tropical forest structure.

e 1 7 g/kg/d) [9], body weight, and total energy intake Discuss

e. 1.7 g/kg/d) [9], body weight, and total energy intake. Discussion Results from this study show that in male collegiate athletes, perceived protein needs were significantly greater than the RDI for protein, but not significantly different than the 2.0 g/kg/day maximum beneficial

level for training and physical performance. It was not surprising that the subjects Captisol chemical structure perceived needs were significantly greater than the 0.8 g/kg/day RDI, considering the extensive marketing of protein supplements to athletes and the protein focused culture of strength coaches and athletes. Furthermore, the most recent literature review on protein requirements in strength-trained athletes concludes that protein requirements for these individuals are elevated due to: 1) enhanced oxidation rates of endogenous amino acids during exercise, 2) the need for increased

substrate to repair damaged muscle tissue, and 3) the capacity to maintain elevated protein synthesis for greater amounts of muscle tissue [10]. However, the level of unawareness among the athletes was surprising when they were asked to report current protein recommendations for strength-trained athletes; none of the subjects answered correctly and most selected the “”do not know”" response. When asked to indicate perceived protein needs by selecting a menu that would meet their protein needs during their highest level of training, the athletes on average identified menus providing 2.4 ± 0.2 g/kg/day, which is 3-fold greater then the RDI for protein. Furthermore, based on Nepicastat datasheet menu selection, more than 1 out of 5 athletes believed that their protein needs are ≥4 g/kg/d.

Taken together, these findings Dimethyl sulfoxide indicate that collegiate athletes understand that their protein needs are greater than the RDI. However, they also indicate that many athletes perceive their protein needs to be above the maximum beneficial level of protein for training and athletic performance. Similar to what was found for perceived protein needs, actual protein intake (2.0 ± 0.1 g/kg/d) was significantly greater than the RDI for protein, but not significantly different from the 2.0 g/kg/day maximum beneficial level for protein intake. Actual protein intake was comparable to perceived protein needs (p = 0.16) and to the 2.0 g/kg/day maximum beneficial level for protein intake in athletes. Food record analysis showed modest inappropriate macronutrient balance. Figure 3 www.selleckchem.com/products/ulixertinib-bvd-523-vrt752271.html compares actual macronutrient intake to the recommended macronutrient distribution for athletes [9]. Measured carbohydrate intake (% of total calories) was significantly less than (p = 0.006) the lowest recommended level and fat and protein intakes were near the highest recommended levels (p = 0.05 and p = 0.20, respectively). Taken together, high-normal fat and protein intakes resulted in suboptimal carbohydrate intake.

The methane/nitrogen (CH4/N2) mixture feeding gas ratio, which di

The methane/nitrogen (CH4/N2) mixture feeding gas ratio, which directly affected the contents and activities of the nitrogen-related and carbon-related precursors in the plasmas, was regulated to control the morphologies and composition of the CNNC arrays. The effects of the morphology, composition, and structure of the CNNC arrays buy MRT67307 on their optical absorption and electrical conduction were studied. The CNNC arrays with intact shape, high optical absorption, high electrical conduction, and nice wettability to polymer are IWP-2 supplier pursued for potential uses as electrodes or even absorbers in photovoltaic devices and photodetectors. Methods Optically absorptive and electrically conductive CNNC arrays

were grown on nickel-covered silicon (100) substrates by means of the GPRD method, as described previously [12, 16]. The sample preparation involves two steps. In the first step, nickel catalyst layers were deposited on silicon (100) wafers by a pulsed laser deposition method. Go6983 in vivo About 100-nm thick nickel catalyst layers were deposited on the prepared substrates under a base pressure of 1 × 10-3 Pa for 8 min using

a Nd:YAG laser to ablate a pure nickel target. The wavelength, pulse energy, and repetition of the Nd:YAG laser were 532 nm, 50 mJ, and 10 Hz, respectively. The distance between the target and substrate was about 4 cm. In the second step, the CNNC arrays were grown by the GPRD method. The plasma source generated reactive plasma just above the substrates through the abnormal glow discharge with a CH4/N2 mixture inlet under a total pressure of 750 Pa. The discharge current, voltage, and time were set to 180 mA, 350 V, and 40 min, respectively. In the CNNC growth, the CH4/N2 inlet ratios were varied from 1/80 to 1/5 in order to obtain the CNNC arrays with different morphologies and compositions. The wettability of the CNNC arrays to poly-3-hexylthiophene mixed with phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM)

layer, which is a commonly used polymer absorber in polymer organic hybrid solar cells, has also been examined by spin coating method using different rotational speeds for different polymer thicknesses. The morphologies of the samples were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy selleck products (TEM). The crystallinity and composition of the individual CNNCs were characterized by selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS). The optical absorption spectra were measured by an ultraviolet spectrophotometer. Longitudinal resistance of the as-grown CNNC arrays was measured by a platinum-cylindrical-tip contacting method using a Power SourceMeter (Keithley Instruments Inc., Beijing, China), and the resistivity of the as-grown CNNCs was obtained by calculating the measured resistance.

J Bacteriol 2009,191(4):1169–1179

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