Methods Fungal strains and culture conditions P. chrysogenum NRRL 1951, the natural isolate obtained from an infected cantaloupe  was used as wild-type strain. P. chrysogenum Wis54-1255, which contains a single copy of the penicillin gene cluster , was used as parental strain. P. chrysogenum npe10-AB·C , a derivative of the npe10 pyrG- strain (Δpen) [9, 10] complemented with the pcbAB and pcbC genes was used in the molecular analysis of IAT. P. chrysogenum DS54465 strain, a derivative of DS17690  wherein the P. chrysogenum Cabozantinib mouse KU70 homologue has been deleted (Marco A. van den Berg, unpublished results), were used in the ial
gene deletion experiments. Fungal spores were collected from plates in Power medium  grown for 5 days at 28°C. P. chrysogenum liquid cultures were initiated by inoculating fresh spores in complex medium CIM (20 g/l corn steep solids, 10 g/l yeast extract, Sirolimus ic50 58 mM sucrose, 50 mM calcium
carbonate, pH 5.7) or defined DP medium  without phenylacetate. After incubation at 25°C for 20 h in an orbital shaker (250 rpm), aliquots were inoculated in complex penicillin production CP medium (4 g/l potassium phenylacetate, 20 g/l pharmamedia, 50 g/l lactose, 0.03 M ammonium sulphate, 0.05 M calcium carbonate, pH 6.6) or in defined DP medium with or without phenylacetate (4 g/l). Spores of the ial null mutant were used to inoculate shake flasks with synthetic media supporting β-lactam production . To verify the validity
of the findings, two different penicillin side chain precursors were added to the media, phenyl acetic acid and adipate, at 0.3 and 0.5 g/l respectively. Cultivation was for 168 hours at 25°C and 280 rpm. As controls both parent strains, DS17690 and DS54465, were used. Plasmid constructs To completely block the transcription of the ial gene, 1500 base pairs of the promoter and the ORF were PCR amplified (for oligonucleotides see the Appendix) and fused to the amdS selection marker, obtained from pHELY-A1  by DOK2 PCR amplification (Fig. 2). To block eventual read trough from any unconventional transcription start sites in the amdS gene, the trp terminator was PCR amplified from plasmid pAMPF21  and inserted between the amdS gene and the ial ORF (Fig. 2). Plasmid p43gdh-ial was constructed to overexpress the ial gene in P. chrysogenum starting from plasmid pIBRC43BglII, a derivative of pIBRC43  that contains the NcoI restriction site mutated to BglII. The ial gene was amplified from genomic P. chrysogenum Wis54-1255 DNA using the primers DElikeF and DElikeR (see the Appendix) and was cloned in the BglII-StuI sites of plasmid pIBRC43BglII, between the A. awamori gdh gene promoter (a very efficient promoter in ascomycetes) and the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cyc1 transcriptional terminator.