In this review, we briefly examine the current state of knowledge

In this review, we briefly examine the current state of knowledge from studies of cognitive remediation in Crenigacestat supplier psychiatry and we highlight open questions. We then present a systems neuroscience rationale for successful cognitive training for neuropsychiatric illnesses, one that emphasizes the distributed nature of neural assemblies that support cognitive and affective processing,

as well as their plasticity. It is based on the notion that, during successful learning, the brain represents the relevant perceptual and cognitive/affective inputs and action outputs with disproportionately larger and more coordinated populations of neurons that are distributed (and that are interacting) across multiple levels of processing and throughout multiple brain regions. This approach allows us to address limitations found in earlier research and to introduce important

principles for the design and evaluation of the next generation of cognitive training for impaired neural systems. We summarize work to date using such neuroscience-informed methods and indicate VX-689 mouse some of the exciting future directions of this field. Neuropsychopharmacology Reviews (2012) 37, 43-76; doi: 10.1038/npp.2011.251; published online 2 November 2011″
“Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiological agent of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) and at least two B cell lymphoproliferative diseases: primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and multicentric Castleman’s disease (MCD). B cells derived from PEL are latently infected, and can be induced to lytic replication by treatment with chemical agents like TPA or butyrate, which have pleiotropic effects on host cell signaling and chromatin structure. Most of these lines also display moderate levels of spontaneous lyric induction, which complicates analysis of latency. Here we describe the creation of latently infected cell Endonuclease lines derived from SLK endothelial

cells that (i) display tight control of KSHV latency, with little spontaneous reactivation and (ii) are efficiently inducible by doxycycline, avoiding the need for pleiotropic inducing agents. These cells produce substantial quantities of infectious KSHV, and should be useful for studies of the latent-lyric switch and the impact of lyric replication on host cell biology. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Classically, neurons communicate by anterograde conduction of action potentials. However, information can also pass backward along axons, a process that is essential during the development of the nervous system. Here we propose a role for such ‘retroaxonal’ signals in adult learning.

All rights reserved “

Diagnostic criter

All rights reserved.”

Diagnostic criteria and empirical evidence support the existence of cognitive deficits in depression. However, depressed mood, loss of interest and low self-efficacy BAY 57-1293 might influence cognitive performance.

Method. Goal-setting instructions were used to promote motivation in depressed patients and control subjects during neuropsychological assessment. The resulting performance was compared with performance using standard instructions. Sixty in-patients with non-psychotic unipolar depression and 60 age- and education-matched healthy control subjects were assessed with standard neuropsychological tests [the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), the Digit Symbol Test (DST), the Regensburg Word Fluency Test (RWT), and the Number Combination Test (Zahlen-Verbindungs-Test, ZVT)] using either goal-setting or standard test instructions.

Results. Depressed patients showed lower baseline performance and lower generalized self-efficacy (p < 0.0005) than controls. However, goal-setting instructions significantly improved patients’ memory performance by 10% [AVLT: F(5,54)=3.611, p=0.007] and psychomotor performance by 13% [ZVT: F(3,56)=3.667, p=0.017]. Consequently, patients and control subjects demonstrated similar results when goal-setting instructions were applied. Goal-setting instructions

showed a statistical trend, increasing patients’ performance in the DST by 12 % [F(1, 58) Selleckchem Z-IETD-FMK = 2.990, p = 0.089], although their verbal fluency measured by the RWT did not increase. No significant correlations of increased performance with generalized self-efficacy were found.

Conclusions. Cognitive deficits in depressed patients are influenced by motivational shortcomings. Because generalized self-efficacy failed to correlate to increased test performance, future research needs to disentangle the effective components of goal-setting instructions.

Task-specific self-efficacy as well as enhancement of task-focused attention might underlie the significant goal-setting effect in depressed patients.”
“The really interesting thing about herpesviruses is that they can establish lifelong persistant infections in immunocompetent hosts. At first glance, they would seem to have very different ways of doing this. Here we will use as a model our current understanding unless of how the human herpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus establishes and maintains such an infection. We apply information from a wide range of sources including laboratory experimentation, clinical observation, animal models and a new computer simulation. We propose that the detailed mechanisms for establishing infection are dependent on the virus and tissues involved, but the strategy is the same – to persist in a long-lived cell type where the virus is invisible to the immune system and nonpathogenic.”
“In the ventriloquism effect, the presentation of spatially discrepant visual information biases the localization of simultaneously presented sounds.

Although alcohol is the focus of this review, it is highly probab

Although alcohol is the focus of this review, it is highly probable, given the common neural and biochemical pathways used by drugs of abuse, that the findings described here will also apply to other drugs.”
“We previously used directed evolution in human airway epithelia to create adeno-associated virus 2.5T (AAV2.5T), a highly infectious chimera of AAV2 and AAV5 with one point mutation (A581T). We hypothesized that the mechanism for its increased infection may be a higher Selleck Sapitinib binding affinity to the surface of airway epithelia than its parent AAV5. Here, we show that, like AAV5, AAV2.5T, uses 2,3N-linked sialic acid as its primary receptor; however, AAV2.5T binds to the apical

surface of human airway epithelia at higher levels and has more receptors than AAV5. Furthermore, its binding affinity is similar to that of AAV5. An alternative hypothesis is that AAV2.5T interaction with 2,3N-linked sialic acid may instead be required for cellular internalization. Consistent with this, AAV2.5T binds but fails to be internalized by CHO cells that lack surface expression of sialic acid. Moreover, whereas AAV2.5T binds similarly to human (rich in 2,3N-linked sialic acid) and pig airway epithelia (2,6N-linked sialic acid), significantly more virus was internalized by human airway. Subsequent transduction correlated with the level of internalized rather than surface-bound virus. We also found that human airway epithelia internalized significantly

more AAV2.5T than AAV5. These data suggest that AAV2.5T has evolved to utilize specific 2,3N-linked sialic acid residues

on the surface of airway aminophylline selleck inhibitor epithelia that mediate rapid internalization and subsequent infection. Thus, sialic acid serves as not just an attachment factor but is also required for AAV2.5T internalization, possibly representing an important rate-limiting step for other viruses that use sialic acids.”
“Objective: Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) decline in chronic urticaria (CU) may be involved in etiopathogenesis of the disease or is a secondary phenomenon resulting e.g. from psychological distress. The relation between mental stress and skin diseases is well documented, however not focused on urticaria. We sought to explore the association of mood disturbances and the sense of coherence (SOC), as psychological distress parameters, and DHEA-S decline in patients suffering from CU. Methods: The patient sample included 54 subjects with active CU. Fifty-nine healthy subjects were enrolled in the control group. In all subjects DHEA-S serum concentration was measured and mental status analyzed using the, State and Trait Anxiety Inventory, SOC Questionnaire and Beck Depression Inventory. Results: Urticaria patients showed lower serum concentration of DHEA-S (p = .01) and lower level of the SOC (p = .009), as well as higher level of anxiety as a state (p < .001) and as a trait (p =.001), and higher level of depression (p = .003).

The use of the mAChR agonist

The use of the mAChR agonist AZD5363 oxotremorine-M

significantly reduced the amplitude of the I(K,M) and modified the discharge response to current pulses from single spike to multiple spiking, reducing the adaptation of the electrical discharge. The intracellular perfusion of the phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U73122 significantly attenuated the inhibitory action of the mAChR receptor agonist oxotremorine-M. Its inactive analog U73343 produced no significant action. The use of the phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate (PIP(2)) scavenger poly-L-lysine also led to a significant reduction of the I(K,M). Our results show that the mAChR mediated activation of PLC and subsequent PIP(2) depletion (caused by its hydrolysis), modulates the I(K,M) in the vestibular-afferent neurons, modifying their discharge response dynamics to current-pulse injection. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Kaposi’s Copanlisib manufacturer sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is etiologically linked to Kaposi’s sarcoma, primary effusion lymphomas, and multicentric Castleman’s disease. Like other herpesviruses, KSHV can

exist in either a lytic or a latent phase during its life cycle. We report that the lytic protein encoded by KSHV open reading frame 64 (Orf64) is a viral deubiquitinase (DUB) enzyme capable of deubiquitinating cellular proteins in vitro and in vivo. Orf64 DUB activity is effective against lysine 48 (K48)- and lysine 63 (K63)-linked Cediranib (AZD2171) ubiquitin chains. Thus, KSHV Orf64 is a viral DUB that does not show specificity toward K48 or K63 ubiquitin linkages. Orf64 DUB activity lies within the first 205 residues of the protein, and deubiquitination is dependent on a cysteine at position 29, since mutation of this residue ablated this activity. Cell fractionation studies revealed that the N terminus and the full-length protein localized to both the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments.

The function of Orf64 was tested by short interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown studies on latently infected cells that were induced into lytic replication. We found that depletion of Orf64 by siRNA resulted in decreased viral lytic transcription and lytic protein expression. These experiments indicate that Orf64 plays a role in KSHV lytic replication.”
“Locus ceruleus (LC) neurons are preferentially and initially affected in Alzheimer disease (AD); however, the impact of the loss of LC neurons on the pathological sequence of AD, including amyloid P-protein (A beta) deposition and neurofibrillary tangle formation, has not been elucidated. In this study, we chemically injured LC neurons of the brains of familial AD-related amyloid precursor protein (APP)-transgenic mice using the LC-noradrenergic neuron-selective neurotoxin, N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-bromo-benzylamine (DSP4). The levels of noradrenaline significantly decreased in the cerebral cortices of DSP4-treated mice.

The results suggest that curcumin may play a protective effect in

The results suggest that curcumin may play a protective effect in primary cultured rat prefrontal cortical neurons against iA beta-induced cytotoxicity, and both AKT and caspase-3 are involved in the curcumin-induced

protective effects. (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.”
“Purpose: Inguinal hernia is considered one of the major morbidities after radical prostatectomy. We compared inguinal hernia repair rates in patients treated with radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer Cisplatin order relative to those of 2 nonsurgically treated groups of patients, namely individuals who underwent prostate biopsy or transurethral resection of the prostate, and a surgically treated group of patients who underwent pelvic selleck inhibitor lymph node dissection, within a large North American database.

Materials and Methods: Using the Quebec Health Plan database we identified 5,478 men treated with radical prostatectomy vs 6,933, 7,697 and 532 who underwent prostate biopsy, transurethral resection of the prostate or

pelvic lymph node dissection, respectively, between 1990 and 2000. Kaplan-Meier plots graphically explored inguinal hernia repair rates. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression analyses examined variables associated with inguinal hernia repair after either group. Covariates consisted of age, year of treatment and the Charlson comorbidity index.

Results: The 1, 2, 5 and 10-year inguinal hernia repair rates after radical prostatectomy were 4.4%, 6.7%, 11.7% and 17.1%, respectively. For the same points after prostate biopsy the rates were 1.7%, 2.9%, 6.1% and 9.8% vs 1.7%, 2.6%, 5.5% and 9.2%, respectively, after transurethral resection of the prostate, and 0.8%, 2.4%, 4.9% and 9.3% after pelvic lymph node dissection (pair-wise log rank tests p<0.001). On multivariable Cox regression

analyses the rate of inguinal hernia repair was 1.9, 2.1 and 1.7-fold higher for patients who underwent radical prostatectomy vs prostate biopsy, transurethral resection of the prostate and pelvic lymph node dissection, respectively (all p<0.001).

Conclusions: Radical prostatectomy many predisposes to higher inguinal hernia repair rates than in the 3 examined control groups. A higher rate of inguinal hernia repair after radical prostatectomy warrants consideration in the discussion of radical prostatectomy perioperative complications.”
“Social isolation results in fundamental behavioral abnormalities in rodents which models certain neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. However, the developmental stage that is most vulnerable to social isolation is largely unknown. In the present study, we subjected weaning rats to a four-week peri-adolescence isolation rearing (PAIR) and then returned them to social rearing for an additional four weeks until adulthood. Open field locomotion, social interaction behavior, and acute pain sensitivity were examined at different time points.

CONCLUSION: Complete microsurgical occlusion of the residual aneu

CONCLUSION: Complete microsurgical occlusion of the residual aneurysm is possible. However, in large or giant aneurysms direct microsurgery is a challenging high-risk procedure, and we recommend that these patients be referred to a dedicated

neurovascular center to minimize surgical complications. Even in experienced hands, use of different bypass procedures may be the best option for demanding growing lesions, especially those in the posterior see more circulation.”
“We systematically reviewed reports about determinants of HIV infection in injecting drug users from 2000 to 2009, classifying findings by type of environmental influence. We then modelled changes in risk environments in regions with severe HIV epidemics associated with injecting drug use. Of 94 studies identified, 25 intentionally examined risk environments. Modelling of HIV epidemics showed substantial heterogeneity in the number of HIV infections that are attributed to injecting drug use and unprotected sex. We estimate that, during 2010-15, HIV prevalence could

be reduced by 41% in Odessa (Ukraine), 43% in Karachi (Pakistan), and 30% in Nairobi (Kenya) through a 60% reduction of the unmet need of programmes for opioid substitution, needle exchange, and antiretroviral therapy. Mitigation of patient transition to injecting drugs from non-injecting forms could avert a 98% increase in R406 HIV infections in Karachi; whereas elimination of laws prohibiting opioid substitution with concomitant scale-up could prevent 14% of HIV infections in Nairobi. Optimisation of effectiveness and coverage of interventions is crucial for regions with rapidly growing epidemics. Delineation of environmental risk factors provides a crucial insight into HIV prevention. Evidence-informed, rights-based, combination interventions protecting IDUs’ access to HIV prevention and treatment could substantially curtail HIV epidemics.”
“BACKGROUND: The International Study of Intracranial Aneurysms found that for patients with no previous history of subarachnoid

hemorrhage, small (< 7 mm) anterior circulation and posterior circulation aneurysms had a 0% and 2.5% risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage Forskolin over 5 years, respectively.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether cerebral aneurysms shrink with rupture.

METHODS: The clinical databases of 7 sites were screened for patients with imaging of cerebral aneurysms before and after rupture. Inclusion criteria included documented subarachnoid hemorrhage by imaging or lumbar puncture and intracranial imaging before and after cerebral aneurysm rupture. The patients were evaluated for aneurysm maximal height, maximal width, neck diameter, and other measurement parameters. Only a change of >= 2 mm was considered a true change.

RESULTS: Data on 13 patients who met inclusion criteria were collected. The median age was 60, and 11 of the 13 patients (84.6%) were female. Only 5 patients had posterior circulation aneurysms.

036) and potency (P < 0 0001)

The structural and func

036) and potency (P < 0.0001).

The structural and functional details of extraordinary CDR H3 and extensive affinity maturation provide insights into the neutralization mechanism of and the elicitation pathway for broadly neutralizing antibodies like PG9 and PG16.”
“The human and mouse homologs of the rat thyroid hormone responsive protein (THRP), c-abl-interacting protein 2 (Abi-2), are critically involved in neurological development. The Abi-2 gene is evolutionarily conserved invertebrates, and is also found in Xenopus laevis and Drosophila melanogaster. The THRP gene is one of the few genes regulated by thyroid hormone in adult animals. Sequence analysis of the 5′-flanking region of the THRP gene identified a putative thyroid selleck screening library hormone response element (TRE) that is conserved between rat and human. To determine whether or not THRP regulates neural growth and development, THRP was constitutively expressed in transgenic X. laevis. Growth of most animals was halted in early neurulation while the few animals that survived the process developed into grossly malformed

tadpoles. In contrast, control animals reached late embryonic stage 25. These observations suggest that THRP overexpression in early development is not compatible with completion of early embryogenesis and that a different strategy needs to be employed to investigate THRP function in this model. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The 86-kDa immediate-early this website 2 (IE2) protein of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a promiscuous transactivator essential for viral gene expression. IE2 is covalently modified by SUMO at two lysine residues (K175 and K180) and also interacts noncovalently

with SUMO. Although SUMOylation of IE2 has been shown to enhance its transactivation activity, the role of SUMO binding is not clear. Here we showed that SUMO binding by IE2 is necessary for its efficient transactivation function and for viral growth. IE2 bound physically to SUMO-1 through a SUMO-interacting motif (SIM). Mutations in SIM (mSIM) or in both SUMOylation sites and SIM (KR/mSIM), significantly reduced IE2 transactivation effects on Dichloromethane dehalogenase viral early promoters. The replication of IE2 SIM mutant viruses (mSIM or KR/mSIM) was severely depressed in normal human fibroblasts. Analysis of viral growth curves revealed that the replication defect of the mSIM virus correlated with low-level accumulation of SUMO-modified IE2 and of viral early and late proteins. Importantly, both the formation of viral transcription domains and the association of IE2 with viral promoters in infected cells were significantly reduced in IE2 SIM mutant virus infection.

Immunoblotting Immediately after completing

the electroph

Immunoblotting Immediately after completing

the electrophoresis run, OMPs and LPS were transferred to nitrocellulose (NC) membranes according to Harlow and Lane [28] with some modifications. Gels and NC membranes were soaked in Tris-glycine transfer buffer (10% [v/v] methanol, 24 mM Tris base, 194 mM glycine) for 15 min. Separated OMPs and LPSs were transferred onto NC using a mini-transblot cell (Bio-Rad). The membranes were blocked with 3% (w/v) Selumetinib in vivo BSA in Tris Buffered Saline (TBS) containing Tween 20 (0.05% v/v). NC membranes were then incubated with affinity purified MAbs (2 μg ml-1) diluted in 0.15 M TBS buffer containing 1% (w/v) BSA with gentle shaking for 1 h. Membranes were then developed with goat anti-mouse-HRP in 0.15 M TBS buffer containing 1% (w/v) BSA and a diaminobenzidine (DAB) substrate solution. Color development

was stopped by rinsing the membranes with distilled water. Protein sequencing and identification Extracted OMPs were separated on SDS-PAGE gels and probed with anti-OMP monoclonal antibodies. Immunoblot-positive bands were cut with sterile sharp scalpel and immersed in 1% acetic acid solution. Protein sequencing was performed using the MALDI-TOF technology at the Proteomics and Mass Spectrometry Facility at Purdue University (West AP24534 concentration Lafayette, Indiana, USA). Dot blot assay Dot blotting was performed as described by Jaradat and Zawistowski [23]. One microliter of heat-killed Cronobacter whole-cell suspension (108 cells ml-1) was Selleckchem CP673451 spotted on the NC membranes, allowed to air dry for 30 min and incubated in 5% (w/v) NaOH or in 38% (v/v) HCl for 10 s or left untreated. Immunoblotting was performed as described above. Immunoelectron microscopy Immunolabeling was performed essentially as described by Jaradat and Zawistowski [23] with modifications. Briefly, 5 μl of bacterial suspension in distilled water (5 × 108 CFU ml-1) were placed on formvar-coated copper grids. After air-drying for 2 h at room temperature,

Ketotifen the grids were blocked with PBS containing 3% (w/v) BSA for 30 min at 37°C. To expose antigens on bacteria, grids were incubated with 0.1 M NaOH or 0.1 M HCl for 2 h, washed with water and incubated with purified MAb solution at 37°C. Grids were then incubated with colloidal gold (18 nm)-conjugate anti-mouse IgG diluted at 1:50 in dilution buffer (0.02 M Tris, 150 mM NaCl, 0.1% [w/v] BSA, 0.005% [v/v] Tween 20, 0.4% [w/v] gelatin [pH 9]) for 20 h at room temperature. Grids were washed 6 times with water and viewed with a Zeiss Transmission Electron Microscope at various magnifications. Animal use Animals used for immunization and production of monoclonal antibodies were cared for according to the Animal Care and Use Committee (ACUC), Jordan University of Science and Technology. Results Two approaches were attempted to produce monoclonal antibodies specific to Cronobacter spp.: one group of mice was immunized with heat-killed C.

The anabolic actions of the intermittently administered peptides

The anabolic actions of the intermittently administered peptides from the PTH family involve augmentation of the number of osteoblasts through stimulation of cell replication and inhibition of osteoblast apoptosis, and probably also stimulation of osteoblast activity. The molecular mechanisms underlying these anabolic effects are still poorly understood, but appear to include both direct actions on osteoblastic cells as well as indirect effects such as through stimulation see more of IGF-1 production and downregulation of sclerostin, a physiologic antagonist of the important anabolic Wnt-β-catenin

pathway. The anabolic effects of PTH and related peptides appear to be more pronounced on cancellous than on cortical bone [107]. The efficacy and safety of self-administered daily subcutaneous injections of 20 µg teriparatide, the dosing regimen presently

proposed for clinical use in postmenopausal osteoporosis, has been evaluated in an RCT involving 1,637 postmenopausal women with prior vertebral fracture (mean T-score, −2.6 at the lumbar spine), assigned to receive daily s.c. injections of 20 or 40 µg of teriparatide or placebo. Vertebral radiographs were obtained at baseline and at the end of the study (median duration of observation, 21 months), and serial measurements of bone mass by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were performed. New vertebral fractures occurred in 14% of the women in the placebo group and in 5% of the women in the 20-µg teriparatide group. The RR of fracture as compared with the placebo group was 0.35 (95% CI, 0.22–0.55). New AG-120 nonvertebral fragility fractures occurred in 6% of the women in the placebo group and in 3% of the women in the 20-µg teriparatide group (RR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.25–0.88). Over the 21-month observation period, compared to placebo, the 20-µg teriparatide group increased BMD by 9 and 3 percentage

points in the lumbar spine Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II and femoral neck, respectively. At the shaft of the radius, BMD decreased by 2.1 ± 4.2% in the 20-µg teriparatide group as compared to a decrease by 1.3 ± 3.3% in the placebo group (p = 0.09). Total body bone mineral content increased by 2 to 3 percentage points in the 20-µg teriparatide group as compared to placebo as measured on Hologic or Lunar DXA equipment, respectively. Nine percent of the women in the 20-µg teriparatide group reported dizziness, and 3% reported leg cramps, as compared to 6% and 1% of the women in the placebo group, respectively (p = 0.05 and p = 0.02, respectively); the frequency of these complaints was not higher than in the placebo group for the higher teriparatide dosage. A limited increase of the report of nausea and headache in the higher teriparatide dose group was not different from placebo in the 20-µg teriparatide group. Mild hypercalcemia (defined as a calcium concentration that exceeded 10.6 mg/dl) occurred at least once in 11% of the patients treated with 20 µg teriparatide daily (95% were less than 11.

Manipulation of cell-death modality has been successfully used by

Manipulation of cell-death modality has been successfully used by other intracellular pathogens such as Chlamydia, Legionella pneumophila, Listeria monocytogenes, Shigella flexineri, and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium [28–30]. It has been demonstrated that host-cell apoptosis confers protection to the host, once the uptake of apoptotic bodies derived from macrophages by dendritic cells allows an effective activation of the immune response [31]. In contrast, host-cell necrosis can benefit the pathogen because disruption of the

cell membrane releases the bacteria to efficiently spread and infect adjacent cells [32]. Recently, descriptions of the manipulation of cell-death fate by Mtb have shown that

a virulent bacillus, the H37Rv strain, caused macrophage necrosis whereas the attenuated strain H37Ra was related to apoptotic death [12]. Likewise, a Ndk- (nucleoside diphosphate kinase) knockout selleck products Mtb showed reduced virulence, which was demonstrated by the susceptibility to macrophage microbicidal activity and increased ability to induce host-cell apoptosis [33]. this website Pulmonary macrophages are the primary niches for Mtb replication, thus host resistance is critically dependent on innate immune functions played by these cells. Palbociclib chemical structure In this scenario, proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide (NO) are essential for host control of Mtb. Macrophage recognition and phagocytosis of Mtb stimulates mostly the production of TNF-α, IL-1α and β, and IL-6, which are fundamental for the resolution

of Mtb infection in mice [18]. Our results highlighted the proinflammatory response triggered by 97-1505 Mtb very isolate, which induced a higher production of those cytokines by alveolar macrophages than the isolate 97-1200. Surprisingly, the higher production of proinflammatory cytokines did not result in better outcome for the host cell, as shown by the decreased macrophage survival. Stimulation of NO generation can cause oxidative stress leading to dysfunction in mitochondrial respiration and also block caspase-3 activity by nitrosylation, which may inhibit apoptosis and thereby promote necrosis [34]. Beyond the effects on the immune response, TNF-α has been associated with necrosis in a caspase-independent mechanism through activation of receptor TNFR1 and engagement of RIP1 kinase [34]. Recently, it was suggested that alveolar macrophages infected by an attenuated BCG (Bacillus Calmette–Guérin) show high expression of the TNF-α-receptor TNFR1 associated with increased cell apoptosis [35]. However, in that particular study, only apoptosis rate was analysed and necrosis was not shown. In addition, host-cell necrosis induced by the T3SS pore-forming protein, YopB, from pathogenic Yersinia has been associated with increased production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β and TNF-α [36].