01, Not Quit compared with Quit and compared with Reduced). Men who quit smoking showed greater changes to Weight Control beliefs than men who did not quit (p < .05). Men who reduced www.selleckchem.com/products/U0126.html their smoking did not significantly differ from the other two groups. In terms of expectancies of the Health Risks of smoking, no significant differences were found by smoking status for women. Men who quit smoking differed significantly from men who did not quit smoking (p < .05). Men who did not quit smoking showed no change in health risk expectancies during treatment. Men who quit smoking showed a decrease in health risk expectancies at 1 week after their quit date; however, endorsement of these beliefs increased at the end of treatment.
There were no significant differences in changes in smoking expectancies over the course of the study by medication assignment (all p values > .05). When these analyses were repeated in the sample of treatment completers (n = 68), the results were consistent with the full sample. Discussion Smokers who quit smoking with brief behavioral counseling and either SEL or PLO reported reductions in Negative Affect Reduction, Negative Boredom Reduction, Social Facilitation, and Craving/Addiction expectancies while smokers who did not quit smoking reported an increase in Negative Social Impression expectancies. The differences between smoking groups were most pronounced 1 month after the quit date. The findings of this study were partially consistent with Copeland et al.
(1995) who found reductions for three of the same expectancy scales (Negative Affect Reduction, Craving/Addiction, and Social Facilitation) as well as reductions in Taste expectancies for smokers who quit using TNP and behavioral counseling compared with smokers who did not quit. Gender differences in expectancy endorsement across timepoints were found for four scales with women more strongly endorsing beliefs that smoking affects negative affect and cravings and men more strongly endorsing beliefs related to Social Facilitation and Negative Physical Feelings. Past studies of gender differences have been mixed with studies reporting that women more strongly endorsed beliefs related to Health Risks, Weight Control, Social Facilitation (Copeland et al., 1995), and Negative Affect Reduction (Pulvers et al., 2004) and less strongly endorsing beliefs related to Taste/Sensorimotor Manipulation (Copeland et al.
) and Negative Physical Effects (e.g., Rohsenow et al., 2003). These findings suggest that studies of expectancies, including changes in Batimastat expectancies during treatment, should continue to include analysis by gender in order to clarify how the relationship between smoking beliefs and behavior are associated for men and women. Previous studies of treatment-related changes in expectancies (e.g., Copeland et al.