These results with Si-HPMC/BCP are encouraging In addition, this

These results with Si-HPMC/BCP are encouraging. In addition, this biomaterial is easy to use and simplifies the process of filling periodontal lesions. However, more researches are needed to improve the viscosity and hardness to adjust the material to the specificities of periodontal defects.”
“Objectives To estimate the accuracy of ultrasound GANT61 cell line to predict birth weight (BW) and BW discordance in monochorionic diamniotic (MCDA) twin pregnancies.\n\nMethods A prospective series of MCDA twin pregnancies was subjected to ultrasound fetal weight estimations (EFW) at 16, 20, and 26 weeks of gestation and within 2 weeks of birth. Intertwin weight discordance

(Delta EFW and Delta BW) was calculated. The correlation between Delta EFW, Delta BW, EFW, and BW was assessed (Pearson) and least square selleck screening library regression analysis was performed. Positive and negative predictive values of ultrasound to detect severe Delta BW were calculated. Receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curves were constructed to predict Delta BW >25% at different time points of gestation.\n\nResults Sixty pregnancies were included. Median Delta BW was 9.98%. Ten(16,7%),

8(13,3%) and 5(8,3%) twin pairs had a Delta BW > 20%, > 25% and > 30%, respectively. BW and EFW (r = 0.96: p < 0.001) as well as Delta BW and Delta EFW were well correlated with each other (r = 0.75; p < 0.001). Bland-Altman analysis showed that ultrasound evaluation overestimated Delta BW if > 20%. Negative predictive value of ultrasound for Delta BW >25% was 98%. The area under the curve (AUC) to predict a Delta BW >25% at

16, 20, and 26 weeks and < 2 weeks before birth was 0.79, 0.87, 0.93, and 0.95, respectively.\n\nConclusions Ultrasound estimations of BW and Delta BW are highly correlated with actual BW and Delta BW in MCDA twin pregnancies. Copyright (C) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“The studies of the HFE mutations: H63D and C282Y in North African populations have revealed the extreme rarity or even the absence of the C282Y mutation. We have examined 200 chromosomes (100 Libyan people live in Benghazi) for the presence of the two HFE mutations by PCR-RFLP analysis by using PCR conditions used to amplify both Autosomal and Y chromosomal STRs. We Transmembrane Transporters inhibitor have found that the allele frequencies are, respectively, 17% for the H63D and 0% for the C282Y. These results are consistent with the worldwide spread of the H63D mutation and the north European restriction of the C282Y.”
“Following range expansion and colonization, hybridization between Herring and Caspian Gulls, Larus argentatus and L. cachinnans, takes place in central and eastern Europe. To examine how hybrid zone is affected by the abundance dynamics of these species and their reproductive performance, we studied a mixed colony at Wloclawek Reservoir, central Poland, for over 7 years, from 2002 to 2009, and induded data from the species monitoring from 1990 to 2001.

Elevated expression of c-MYC has been demonstrated in oesophageal

Elevated expression of c-MYC has been demonstrated in oesophageal adenocarcinoma;

however, the expression of other members of the MYC/MAX/MAD network has not been addressed. The aims of this work were to characterise the expression of c-MYC, MAX and the MAD learn more family in adenocarcinoma development and assess the effects of overexpression on cellular behaviour. mRNA expression in samples of Barrett’s metaplasia and oesophageal adenocarcinoma were examined by qRT-PCR. Semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry and western blotting were used to examine cellular localisation and protein levels. Cellular proliferation and mRNA expression were determined in SEG1 cells overexpressing c-MYCER or MAD1 using a bromodeoxyuridine assay and qRT-PCR, respectively. Consistent with previous work expression of c-MYC was deregulated in oesophageal adenocarcinoma.

Paradoxically, increased expression of putative c-MYC antagonists MAD1 and MXII was observed in tumour specimens. Overexpression of c-MYC and MAD proteins in SEG1 cells resulted CAL-101 mouse in differential expression of MYC/MAX/MAD network members and reciprocal changes in proliferation. In conclusion, the expression patterns of c-MYC, MAX and the MAD family were shown to be deregulated in the oesophageal cancer model.”
“The structural simplicity and ability to capture serial correlations make Markov models a popular modeling choice

in several genomic analyses, such as identification of motifs, genes and regulatory elements. A critical, yet relatively unexplored, issue is the determination of the order of the Markov model. Most biological applications use a predetermined order for all data sets indiscriminately. Here, we show the vast variation in the performance of such applications with the order. To identify the ‘optimal’ order, we investigated two model selection criteria: Akaike information criterion Ferroptosis tumor and Bayesian information criterion (BIC). The BIC optimal order delivers the best performance for mammalian phylogeny reconstruction and motif discovery. Importantly, this order is different from orders typically used by many tools, suggesting that a simple additional step determining this order can significantly improve results. Further, we describe a novel classification approach based on BIC optimal Markov models to predict functionality of tissue-specific promoters. Our classifier discriminates between promoters active across 12 different tissues with remarkable accuracy, yielding 3 times the precision expected by chance. Application to the metagenomics problem of identifying the taxum from a short DNA fragment yields accuracies at least as high as the more complex mainstream methodologies, while retaining conceptual and computational simplicity.

After 2 weeks of adaptation consuming a total mixed ration (TMR;

After 2 weeks of adaptation consuming a total mixed ration (TMR; 219 and 141 g/kg of crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fibre (NDFom), respectively), lambs were weighed and distributed by BW into 4 pens of 8 lambs/pen in a completely randomized design with: Control group TMR; SB group TMR (as Control plus S. babylonica extract at 30 ml/d); LL group TMR (as Control plus L leucocephala extract at 30 ml/d); SBLL group TMR (as Control

plus 30 ml/d of S. babylonica and L leucocephala extracts in a (1:1, v:v) mixture) for a 63 days experiment. Weekly stock volumes (21 each) of the individual extracts as well as their Belinostat datasheet 1:1 mixture were prepared for daily administration. Extracts were orally administered before the 08:00 h feeding to each lamb. Feed intake was recorded daily and BW was recorded at SCH727965 mw d 22 (P1), d 43 (P2) and d 63 (P3) of the experiment. Each experimental period ended with a digestibility measurement. Average daily gain (ADG), metabolizable protein (MP) intake and metabolizable energy (ME) intake were calculated. Plant secondary metabolites of total phenolics, saponins and the aqueous fraction were 50% lower in SB versus LL extracts. An extract x experimental period interaction occurred for intake of all nutrients (SB > LL = Control > SBLL, P<0.05). Intake

of DM, OM, CP and ADFom were lowest in P3 than other periods, whereas the highest nutrients intake were in P2 and P1 (P<0.05). Individual extracts improved (SB >

LL, P=0.05) the digestible DM, OM, EE and CP more than their 1:1 mixture compared with control or SBLL. Digestible DM was improved (P=0.03) by 5 and 3% with SB and LL extracts respectively, compared to control, whereas digestible CP was improved (P=0.005) by 7 and 5%, respectively, compared to control. Digestible ADFom was drastically lower in P1 and increased steadily in periods P2 and P3 (P<0.001). check details Feed intake was not affected by extract addition although it was reduced from P1 and P2 to P3. Relative to control, addition of extracts increased (P=0.024) ADG while the other performance parameters (i.e., MP intake, ME intake) had a tendency (P=0.05) to improve with extract addition. ADG was improved by about 22 and 21% with SB and LL extracts respectively, while their mixture (i.e., SBLL) was 2% compared to control (i.e., SB = LL > Control = SBLL, P=0.024). MP and ME intakes were decreased (P<0.0001) from P1 and P2 to P3. Results show that daily administration of individual extracts of S. babylonica and L leucocephala improved lamb performance by 22 and 21%, but that a mixture of both had a much lower benefit. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

There were no treatment-associated mortalities At median follow-

There were no treatment-associated mortalities. At median follow-up of 6 months, there was 1 tumor with persistent disease (1.9%) and 3 tumors recurred locally (5.7%).\n\nCONCLUSIONS: This early analysis of IRE treatment of perivascular malignant hepatic tumors demonstrates safety for treating liver malignancies. Larger studies and longer follow-up are necessary to determine long-term efficacy. (J Am Coll Surg 2012;215:379-387. (c) 2012 by the American College of Surgeons)”
“Background: Cutaneous melanoma (CM) is the most lethal form of skin find more malignancy, which registers a constant increase in incidence worldwide. The identification of molecular alteration(s)

involved in its biological aggressiveness represents a major challenge for researchers, considering that existing therapies are ineffective to treat metastasizing cases. The

epigenetic control of chromatin dynamics during DNA synthesis, replication, and repair is fundamental Wnt inhibitor for the orderly progression of cell proliferation. The Chromatin Assembly Factor 1 (CAF-1) complex acts as a major regulator of this process; its intermediate (p60) subunit has been recently proposed as a novel proliferation and prognostic marker for several tumors. We aimed to establish if the evaluation of the expression of CAF-1/p60 in primary CM may help define the prevision of outcome of patients.\n\nMethods: Immunohistochemistry with anti-CAF-1/p60 was performed on paraffin-embedded tissue sections of 130 cases of primary Galardin CM retrieved from the archive files of the Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Section of Pathology, University “Federico II” of Naples, Italy. Results were compared with histopathological

and follow-up data of patients.\n\nResults: CAF-1/p60 was expressed in all CM. A significant statistical association between the overexpression of the protein and the occurrence of skin, node and/or distant metastases (P < 0.05) emerged, independently from histopathological prognostic factors.\n\nConclusions: CAF-1/p60 looks promising as a new prognostic marker for CM and sheds new light on the molecular events associated with photocancerogenesis and melanoma biology. The screening for CAF-1/p60 might contribute to the molecular sub-classification of CM, with improved translational outcomes.”
“Iron is an essential nutrient critical for many cellular functions including DNA synthesis, ATP generation, and cellular proliferation. Though essential, excessive iron may contribute to the generation of free radicals capable of damaging cellular lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. As such, the maintenance and control of cellular iron homeostasis is critical to prevent either iron deficiency or iron toxicity conditions.

The cytotoxicity, mechanism of cell death, mitotic activity, and

The cytotoxicity, mechanism of cell death, mitotic activity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were determined by tetrazolium bromide reduction assay, flow cytometry, cytokinesis-block proliferation index, and superoxide dismutase-inhibitable reduction of ferricytochrome c, respectively. The genotoxicity was measured using PND-1186 concentration comet assay and cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. The cytotoxicity of CHX in RAW264.7 cells presented a dose- and time-dependent manner (p smaller than 0.05). The mode of cell death shifted from apoptosis to necrosis when the dosage of CHX increased. The genotoxicity of CHX in RAW264.7 cells had shown

DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner (p smaller than 0.05). Prolongation of cell cycle and the increase of ROS generation also expressed in a dose-dependent manner (p smaller than 0.05). Taken together, the data suggested that CHX-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity on macrophages may be via ROS generation. (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ compound screening assay Toxicol 29: 452-458, 2014.”
“In this paper, I discuss the discovery of the DNA structure by Francis Crick and James Watson, which has provoked a large

historical literature but has yet not found entry into philosophical debates. I want to redress this imbalance. In contrast to the available historical literature, a strong emphasis will be placed upon analysing the roles played by theory, model, and evidence and the relationship between them. In particular, I am going to discuss not only Crick and Watson’s well-known model and Franklin’s x-ray diffraction pictures (the evidence) but also the less well known theory of helical diffraction, which was absolutely crucial to Crick and Watson’s discovery. The insights into this groundbreaking selleck chemicals llc historical episode will have consequences for the ‘new’ received view of scientific models and their function and relationship

to theory and world. The received view, dominated by works by Cartwright and Morgan and Morrison ([1999]), rather than trying to put forth a ‘theory of models’, is interested in questions to do with (i) the function of models in scientific practice and (ii) the construction of models. In regard to (i), the received view locates the model (as an idealized, simplified version of the real system under investigation) between theory and the world and sees the model as allowing the application of the former to the latter. As to (ii) Cartwright has argued for a phenomenologically driven view and Morgan and Morrison ([1999]) for the ‘autonomy’ of models in the construction process: models are determined neither by theory nor by the world. The present case study of the discovery of the DNA structure strongly challenges both (i) and (ii). In contrast to claim (i) of the received view, it was not Crick and Watson’s model but rather the helical diffraction theory which served a mediating purpose between the model and the x-ray diffraction pictures.

“The benthic component of an interdisciplinary expedition

“The benthic component of an interdisciplinary expedition on icebreaker USCG HEALY

analyzed box core samples and seafloor photographs to quantify deep-sea assemblages in the Canada Basin and Chukchi Borderland area. Soft bottom metazoan macrofauna ( > 250 mu m) were collected with 33 box cores at 11 stations ranging from 817 to 3961 m water depth in the high-Arctic Canada Basin from 28 June to 25 July 2005. Megabenthic epifauna was quantified with a selleck kinase inhibitor digital camera platform suspended < 5 m above the bottom at six stations (940-3800 m water depth), of which the shallowest and northernmost one targeted a pockmark similar to 40 m deep by 800 In wide. A total of 99 macrofauna taxa were identified, including at least three previously undescribed species of polychaetes. Total macrofauna abundance ranged from 0.6 to 50 individuals 0.06 m(-2) (89-2722 ind m(-2)) and total biomass ranged from 0.2 to 1.6 g wet weight 0.06 m(-2) (< 0.1-26.1 g wet weight m(-2)). Macrofauna diversity numbered between 8 and 55 taxa per station. Abundance,

biomass, number of taxa, and diversity indices of macrofauna declined significantly with water depth. Polychaetes, crustaceans and bivalves dominated the macrofaunal densities, biomass and species numbers. The megafauna. visible in the seabed photographs was assigned to a total of 67 provisional taxa; the lowest taxon count per station was 11, and the highest was 51 at the pockmark station. Epifauna abundance was also highest in this pockmark (mean 5.8 ind m(-2)) and generally lower at deepest stations (0.1-0.9 ind m(-2)), but LY333531 chemical structure was skewed by large numbers of the holothuroid Kolga hyalina.

Epifauna observed in the center of the pockmark was significantly different from all other station groups, but did not include known chemosynthetic fauna or bacterial mats. Multivariate analysis indicated that station groupings “Chukchi slope”, “Canada Basin abyss” and the “Chukchi Cap” were significantly different in community composition in the macrofauna box corer samples, but could not be similarly distinguished as such in the epifauna photographs. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“This report presents a case of acute pancreatitis in a 30 year old local breed horse. The horse was diagnosed clinically with severe acute abdominal pain, distended small intestine, a left dorsal large colon displacement and large colon impaction. On post mortem examination pathological changes in the pancreas were observed without intestinal impaction. Histopathologically, the pancreatic lesions were diagnosed as acute pancreatitis with peripancreatic fat necrosis. In addition to these findings, multifocal necrotizing hepatitis was identified as well as a mild interstitial nephritis and tubular nephrosis.

The expression and activity of carriers involved in placental lip

The expression and activity of carriers involved in placental lipid transport are influenced by the endocrine, inflammatory and metabolic milieu of obesity, and further studies are needed to elucidate the strong association between maternal Selleck Ulixertinib obesity

and fetal overgrowth.”
“General anaesthesia (GA) carries high risks of ventilator dependency with increased morbidity and mortality in patients with severe respiratory disease. It also presents an ethical dilemma if surgery remains the only treatment option for patients with advanced terminal chronic respiratory disease. Thoracic epidural anaesthesia for awake thoracic surgery (TEATS) in high-risk patients with dyspnoea at rest could avoid ventilator dependency and speed up recovery even in patients with severe dyspnoea. This retrospective observational study analysed indications, management and outcome of patients contraindicated to GA undergoing awake thoracic surgery with thoracic epidural anaesthesia. From 716 patients requiring thoracic surgery, nine were contraindicated to GA. Eight patients [American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) 4] had a maximum grade four of the modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale (MMRC). Two patients (ASA 3, grade 1

MMRC and ASA 4, grade 4 MMRC) refused GA. Patients (female : male ratio 1.25 : 1, age 19-76 years) had the following chronic respiratory diseases: pulmonary fibrosis (n = 2), pulmonary metastases (n = 3),

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n = 1), alveolitis selleck chemical (n = 1) and myopathy (n = 2). Surgical indications were: thoracotomy (n = 6) for pleurectomy to treat recurring NSC23766 order pneumothorax (n = 3), pleurostomy (n = 1), emphysema surgery (n = 1), lung biopsy (n = 1) and thoracoscopy (n = 3) for pleural/lung biopsy (n = 2), pneumothorax (n = 1). Lidocaine 20 mg/ml or ropivacaine 7.5 mg/ml was titrated to achieve an anaesthesia level T2-T12. No patient required GA [time of surgery: 46-128 min, mean = 76 min, standard deviation (SD) = 23 min]. Seven patients had light sedation with TCI propofol, remifentanyl or both and remained responsive. Fifty percent of patients received phenylephrine or ephedrine to maintain arterial pressure. Two patients went into hypercapnia, which was reversed with assisted mask ventilation. One patient suffered acute respiratory distress 7 days postoperatively and died of intestinal bleeding on Day 25. There were no postoperative complications in other patients. Excluding Patient 9 always remaining in a medical intensive care unit (ICU), the mean postoperative ICU stay in thoracic surgery was 4.4 days (SD 5.2). Hospital discharge was between 5 and 40 days after surgery. TEATS with/without sedation was an alternative to GA for thoracotomy/thoracoscopy in severely dyspnoeic patients (MMRC grade 4, ASA 4) without postoperative sequelae.


this study, we examined the expression and function of


this study, we examined the expression and function of Slug in RA FLS. Slug mRNA expression was measured in the synovial tissue (Si) and FLS obtained from RA and osteoarthritis CCI-779 order patients. Slug and Puma mRNA expression in FLS by apoptotic stimuli were measured by real-time PCR analysis. FLS were transfected with control siRNA or Slug siRNA. Apoptosis was quantified by trypan blue exclusion, DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 assay. RA ST expressed higher level of Slug mRNA compared with osteoarthritis ST. Slug was significantly induced by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) but not by exogenous p53 in RA FLS. Puma induction by H(2)O(2) stimulation was significantly higher in Slug siRNA-transfected FLS compared with control siRNA-transfected FLS. After H(2)O(2) stimulation, viable cell number was significantly lower in Slug siRNA-transfected FLS compared with control siRNA-transfected FLS. Apoptosis enhancing effect of Slug siRNA was further confirmed by ELISA that detects cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragments and caspase-3 assay. These data demonstrate that Slug is overexpressed in RA ST and that suppression P505-15 solubility dmso of Slug gene facilitates

apoptosis of FLS by increasing Puma transactivation. Slug may therefore represent a potential therapeutic target in RA.”
“Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal-recessive disease characterized by recurrent attacks of fever with serositis. Differential diagnosis of a FMF abdominal attack with acute abdomen is difficult. Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdominal pain that requires surgical treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate frequency of FMF in patients with negative appendectomy.\n\nWe assessed 278 patients (female/male 127/151) who were operated with preoperative diagnosis of acute appendicitis. In 250 of the patients,

definitive diagnosis of acute appendicitis was established by histo-pathological examination. Patients with negative appendectomy were assessed for FMF by rheumatologist.\n\nNegative appendectomy was detected in 28 patients (M/F 5/23, mean age 25.3 +/- A 8.4 years). Negative appendectomy ratio was 10.1 %. Among 28 patients Selleckchem SHP099 two had FMF (7.7 %).\n\nFMF were established in 7.7 % of patients with negative appendectomy. Our study suggests patients having negative appendectomy should be evaluated for FMF. Further large sample studies are needed to define the real prevalence of FMF among negative appendectomy patients.”
“P>The production of biodegradable polymers that can be used to substitute petrochemical compounds in commercial products in transgenic plants is an important challenge for plant biotechnology. Nevertheless, it is often accompanied by reduced plant fitness.

Comparing within a region but across the four macroinvertebrate m

Comparing within a region but across the four macroinvertebrate metrics, the average richness of tolerant taxa (RichTOL) had the highest R-2 for BRT models. Across the four metrics, final BRT models had between four and seven explanatory variables and always included a variable related to urbanization (e. g., population density, percent urban, or percent manmade channels), and either a measure

of hydrologic runoff (e. g., minimum April, average December, or maximum monthly runoff) and(or) a natural landscape factor (e. g., riparian slope, precipitation, GSK1904529A in vivo and elevation), or a measure of riparian disturbance. Contrary to our expectations, Full Region models explained nearly as much variance in the macroinvertebrate data as Individual Ecoregion models, and taking into account watershed size or elevation did not appear to improve model performance. As a result, it may be advantageous for bioassessment programs to develop large regional models as a preliminary assessment of overall disturbance conditions as long as the range in natural landscape variability is not excessive.”
“Introduction: Juvederm (R) VOLUMA (R) with Lidocaine is a hyaluronic acid (HA)-based injectable gel that is used to restore the volume of the face. This study was designed

to assess the real-world effectiveness of this HA gel over 21 days when used for mid-face augmentation MAPK Inhibitor Library cell assay in normal, healthy subjects desiring aesthetic improvement. Materials and methods: This prospective, observational, single-arm, open-label post-marketing study enrolled 115 healthy selleck screening library subjects, from five European centers. The primary objective

was to evaluate subject-reported satisfaction and experience of the treatment across a range of doses of Juvederm (R) VOLUMA (R) with Lidocaine (1 ml/2 ml/combination), immediately after injection and 21 days post-treatment. Results: Subject satisfaction questionnaire (SSQ) scores of Delighted or Happy were given by 95.6% of subjects immediately after injection, and by 93.7% of subjects at Day 21. Overall, subject and investigator satisfaction with cosmetic effect and smoothness was very positive. Pain was minimal; most subjects experienced only minor degrees of discomfort, and this was mainly related to the procedure itself. Conclusions: Juvederm (R) VOLUMA (R) with Lidocaine was well accepted by both subjects and investigators, associated with high levels of satisfaction, was considered smooth and easy to use, and was well tolerated when used for the treatment of mid-face area volume enhancement.”
“Infectious diseases have caused die-offs in both free-ranging gorillas and chimpanzees. Understanding pathogen diversity and disease ecology is therefore critical for conserving these endangered animals.

Geographic differences in the seasonal timing and

Geographic differences in the seasonal timing and Lazertinib supplier relative importance of climatic drivers of WNV risk likely reflect underlying variability in key ecological and social characteristics.”
“Rivers are valuable to human beings because of their various functions. Unfortunately, ecological integrity of rivers has been seriously threatened by human activities,

resulting in poor river functions. It is thus necessary to evaluate and maintain river health. Meanwhile, it is challenging to comprehensively assess river health with a single method alone. It is therefore relevant to combine the advantages of multiple methods in river health assessment. By classifying and characterizing river functions, we first established an indicator system for river health assessment in plain river network regions. We then assessed the health status of the Taihu Plain in terms of an improved entropy-based fuzzy matter-element model. We found that the overall health status of the Taihu Plain is below “good”. In particular, the health status of Yang-Cheng-Dian-Mao and Hang-Jia-Hu Region is “moderate”; the Wu-Cheng-Xi-Yu Region displays the poorest

BI 6727 datasheet natural and social river functions. We also found that flood control is the most important influential factor in river health. Our findings suggest that rivers in the Taihu Plain must be restored to maintain their health, with the Wu-Cheng-Xi-Yu Region that must be restored preferentially, and that the river function of flood control must be improved at the scale of whole watershed. Comparing with other four commonly used comprehensive assessment methods, our improved entropy-based fuzzy matter-element model outperforms in reflecting objective fact and can be applied to river health assessment. OSI-744 in vivo Our results are generally consistent with existing studies, confirming that the

proposed method for river health assessment is effective and feasible. Therefore, it provides a useful reference for river health assessment in other plain river network regions. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Stress is triggered by numerous unexpected environmental, social or pathological stimuli occurring during the life of animals, including humans, which determine changes in all of their systems. Although acute stress is essential for survival, chronic, long-lasting stress can be detrimental. In this review, we present data supporting the hypothesis that stress-related events are characterized by modifications of oxidative/nitrosative pathways in the brain in response to the activation of inflammatory mediators. Recent findings indicate a key role for nitric oxide (NO) and an excess of pro-oxidants in various brain areas as responsible for both neuronal functional impairment and structural damage. Similarly, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), another known source of oxidants, may account for stress-induced brain damage.