A Ma‘aza man said ominously,
“If you do not say Bismillah when dealing with the tree you might not be able to move your hands and legs afterwards.” buy Entinostat For all the culture groups, invoking God before handling an acacia not only deters evil but acknowledges the tree as God’s gift to people. An Ababda man said that one should say Bismillah even to stay in the tree’s shade, and before pollarding one must explain one’s intention in coming to the tree and seeking its permission, saying “we ask for peace; we ask for living.” This petition means”we are here to benefit from you selleck without harming you, and ask that you not harm us.” Special rituals are reserved for sacred trees and trees having medicinal properties (Dafni 2006) (Fig. 5). Traditional healers (fagiiri, hakim B.; haawi Ar.) instruct users and petitioners to be clean, and inform them from what
directions and times of day they should approach the tree. The supplicant seeking to fulfill a wish can do a karama (an offering) or good deed for the tree, especially by sacrificing a goat. The supplicant invites male members of the group to participate. After the ritual meal he expresses his wish and the group’s spiritual leader “reads the book” by extending his hands flat and upright and praying, “Let Allah help the tree to fulfill your desire.” Fig. 5 This acacia tree in Sinkat, regarded as sacred for the Hadandawa people, was already documented by GH Barter between 1928 and 1932 (SAD.474/21/78; Reproduced by permission Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor of Durham
University Library) The multifaceted values that these pastoral nomadic peoples associate with acacias reveal the tree as a cultural keystone species. The pastoralists have many incentives Celecoxib to safeguard this keystone for sustainable uses, and have long been successful in doing so, perpetuating the distinctive cultural landscapes of eastern Saharan pastoralists. The nomads themselves however express concerns about the future of their landscapes and livelihoods, which are in a period of unprecedented change. Uprooting people and trees The traditional balance between people, trees and other resources in the region is being affected by a number of stresses and stimuli. These include increased vulnerability to dry spells, changing market conditions, new economic opportunities, sedentarization, and famine relief (Krzywinski and Pierce 2001; Hobbs and Tsunemi 2007; Barnard and Duistermaat 2012). These forces have affected pastoralists and introduced changes on the cultural landscapes in distinctive ways. In the northernmost region, it is remarkable that there are any acacias at all: they were on a pathway to elimination, and exist today only because people reversed course.