Detailed analysis revealed that the split was mediated by recombination between short similar sequences . Massive decay of molybdenum-related genes for two-electron reduction-oxidation reactions Unexpectedly, our profiling suggested that functions related to molybdenum (Mo) were lost specifically in the hspEAsia strains (Table 3 and Additional file 2 (= Table S1)). The trace element Mo
is essential for nearly all organisms . After transport into the cell as molybdate, it is incorporated ATM Kinase Inhibitor datasheet into metal cofactors for specific enzymes (molybdo-enzymes) that catalyze reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions mediated by two-electron transfer. Table 3 Decay of molybdenum-related genes Type hspEAsia hspAmerind hpEurope hspWAfrica Strain F57 F32 F30 F16 51 52 (a) (b) P12 (c) Molybdenum (MoO4 2-) transport modA x x x + + x + + + + modB x + + + x x + + + + modC x x x x x + + + + + Molybdenum cofactor synthesis moaA x x x x + x + + + + moaC x + + + + + + + + + moaE x + + + + + + + + + moaD + x + + + + + + x + moeB + + + + + + + + + + mogA x + x x x + + + + + moeA x x x x x x + + + + mobA + + + + + x + + + + Molybdenum cofactor-containing enzyme bisC x x x x x x + + + + +, present; x, disrupted (nucleotide sequence remained).
a) Strains Shi470, v225d, Cuz20, Sat464 and PeCan4. b) Strains 26695, HPAG1, G27, B38, B8 and SJM180. c) Strains J99 and 908 The states in strain 98-10 are: x for modA, modB, mobA, moaA, moeB and bisC; Capmatinib mouse + for modC, moaD, moaE, mogA, moaC and moeA. In the 20 H. GDC-0941 purchase pylori genomes, the only gene for molybdo-enzymes identified was bisC. At least one gene in each of the three Mo-related functions, Mo transport, Mo cofactor synthesis and a Mo-containing enzyme, decayed in all hspEAsia strains (Table 3 and Figure 4). Detailed analysis of
nucleotide sequences revealed a mutation in 10 of 12 Mo-related genes in some of the hspEAsia strains (Table 3 and Additional file 3 (= Table S2)). The occurrence of apparently Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II independent multiple mutations (Additional file 3 (= Table S2)) suggests some selection against use of Mo in the hspEAsia strains. All other strains but P12 possessed all intact genes. The strain P12 had a truncation of moaD (Additional file 3 (= Table S2)). Tungsten sometimes substitutes for Mo, but genes for known tungstate/molybdate binding proteins (TupA and WtpA) were not found in the H. pylori genomes. Figure 4 Decay of Mo-related genes in the hspEAsia strains. Mo-related genes are indicated by color. Homologs are indicated by the same color. See Additional file 3 (= Table S2) for nucleotide sequences. The sequences in the four Japanese strains were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the primers listed in the Additional file 4 (= Table S3).