The aim of our investigation VE-822 cost was to perform a pilot trial to test the feasibility of using foods
fortified with microencapsulated fish oil (MicroN3) to deliver a beneficial daily amount of EPA and DHA to individuals not regularly consuming fish or N3 supplement products. Methods We obtained written informed consent from 20 participants (12 men, and 8 women; 20–70 y) in generally good health, who agreed to maintain their current diet and exercise habits (3–5 days/wk) during the trial. Participants were excluded if their BMI was <18.5 or >34.9. We also excluded candidates currently taking an N3 supplement or eating fish > 1×/wk. Participants were randomized equally to a treatment or placebo group after completing all questionnaires inclusive of food frequency measurements. On days 0 and 15 blood was collected for analysis (see below). On days 1–14, participants reported to our kitchen to consume a breakfast meal (~2093 kJ). The treatment breakfast of foods containing MicroN3 (MEG-3™; Ocean Nutrition, Nova Scotia, Canada) included: milk, yogurt, and bread products BMN-673 including tortillas and sliced bread. All of the products we used in our study were “”finished goods”" products available in grocery stores in the United States and Canada. Thus, each product
was made with the MEG-3 ingredient all ready in place. We did not use the MEG-3 product as a powder that was mixed into foods. A list of foods currently available can be found at http://www.meg-3.com. We also incorporated brown eggs from hens fed flaxseed as hens are able to PAK5 efficiently convert the ALA derived from flax to DHA . Total EPA/DHA ranged from 450–500 mg/meal. Individuals randomized to the placebo group received macronutrient-matched meals. This study protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board at The Cooper Institute, Dallas, TX, USA. Primary outcomes included plasma concentrations of the fatty acids EPA and DHA, which are typically associated with cardiovascular health [2–4]. All plasma fatty acid
analysis was completed in one batch at Metametrix Clinical Laboratory (Norcross, GA, USA) using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry . We obtained 12 hour fasting blood samples from all study participants on days 0 and 15. For plasma samples, we drew one 7 mL EDTA (lavender) tube, inverted the tube ~10 times and centrifuged the sample immediately for 15 minutes. We then transferred 3 ml of plasma to a transfer tube and kept the sample frozen until we performed our analysis in batch. Plasma fatty acids were analyzed in duplicate using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Sample preparation consists of a methyl esterification reaction followed by liquid/liquid extraction prior to analysis. To a 16 × 100 mm glass screw top tube, 2 mL of internal standard solution was added to 200 μL of plasma. Samples were vortex mixed followed by a 1.5 mL addition of reaction solution (1:3 v/v, acetyl chloride:iso-octane).