0%), and mainly found on the right anterior wall (from 0 o’clock

0%), and mainly found on the right anterior wall (from 0 o’clock to 3 o’clock) of the esophagus (64.0%) (Fig. 5). There were no statistically significant differences in the grade of RE, type of gastric mucosal atrophy, check details and the presence or absence of hiatus hernia between cases of RE on the ridge of mucosal folds or in the valley between folds (Table 2). Although BE is an emerging health problem worldwide, it is also

plagued by controversy regarding its endoscopic diagnosis. A major problem is the significant interobserver variability, partly because of the lack of a universally accepted definition and grading system of SSBE.10,11 To improve the diagnostic concordance in SSBE endoscopically, we focused on the squamous islands and the specific position of columnar epithelium in relation to mucosal folds. Narrow band imaging is a recent optical technique that enhances the diagnostic capability

of endoscopic examination by characterizing tissues using narrow-bandwidth filters in a video system.13,14 Although chromoendoscopy with iodine solution is the gold standard technique for the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus,25,26 iodine solution can lead to a transient dysphagia related to esophagospasm, and cause nausea, epigastric discomfort, and allergic reactions.27,28 In the present study, NBI could detect squamous islands in 71 Tofacitinib clinical trial (94.7%) of 75 SSBE cases in which squamous islands were found by iodine chromoendoscopy. WL endoscopy detected only 48 (64%) of the 75 positive cases. Takubo et al. recently reported that the esophageal gland proper, a marker of esophageal mucosa, was found in

squamous islands of columnar epithelium, which suggested the value of squamous islands as a marker of BE.29 Although squamous islands are not reliably recognized by endoscopy with image-enhanced techniques in all cases of SSBE, a diagnosis of SSBE can be made when squamous islands are endoscopically evident in columnar mucosa at locations distant from the squamocolumnar junction. Although the number of identified squamous islands was lower with NBI than with iodine chromoendoscopy in the present study, endoscopic observation using NBI can be recommended as a modality for diagnosing BE because of its 95% detectability of columnar Histidine ammonia-lyase epithelium with squamous islands. Barrett’s esophagus has been generally accepted as a complication of chronic and severe GERD. We have consistently demonstrated that both mucosal breaks and tongue-like SSBE are predominantly found in the right anterior wall of the esophagus.16,17 These findings have been confirmed by other groups.30,31 The asymmetrical lower esophageal sphincter pressure may not effectively prevent gastroesophageal reflux on this side.19 Investigating more precisely the location of tongue-like SSBE and mucosal breaks was the aim of the present study and we found that both are mainly found on the ridges of mucosal folds on the right anterior wall of the esophagus.

1 and SUR2B of KATP channels in the colon devoid of mucosa and su

1 and SUR2B of KATP channels in the colon devoid of mucosa and submucosa (n = 10, P < 0.05). NaHS (0.01~1 mM) concentration-dependently inhibited the spontaneous Nutlin-3 in vivo contractions of the strips and the NaHS IC50 for the WAS rats was significantly lower than that for the SWAS rats (n = 10, P < 0.0001). The inhibitory effect of NaHS was significantly reduced by glibenclamide (n = 10, P < 0.0001). Conclusion: The colonic hypermotility induced by repeated WAS may be associated with the decreased production of endogenous H2S. The increased expression of the subunits of KATP channels in colonic smooth muscle

cells may be a defensive response to repeated WAS. H2S donor may have potential clinical utility in treating chronic stress- induced colonic hypermotility. Key Word(s): 1. chronic stress; 2. motility; 3. hydrogen sulfide; Presenting Author: A YOUNG SEO

Additional Authors: DONG HO LEE, CHEOL MIN SHIN, SEONG BEOM KIM, WOO-CHAN SON, NAYOUNG KIM, YOUNG SOO PARK, HYUK YOON, HYUN JIN CHO Corresponding Author: A YOUNG SEO Affiliations: Seoul National Univ. Bundang Hospital; Asan Medical Center Objective: Experimental studies have shown the chemopreventive properties of green tea extract (GTE) on colorectal cancer. Colorectal adenomas are precursors to colorectal cancers. Therefore, a randomized trial was conducted to determine the preventive effect of GTE supplements on metachronous colorectal check details adenomas by giving GTE tablets of which are equivalent of 9 cup-of-green tea per day (0.9 g/day GTE, 0.6 g/day epigallocatechin gallate MTMR9 [EGCG]). Methods: The subjects who had undergone complete removal of colorectal adenomas by endoscopic polypectomy were enrolled. They were then randomized into two groups: supplementation group (0.9 g GTE per day for 12 months) or control group without GTE supplementation. Follow-up colonoscopy was conducted in 12 months. A sample size of 176 patients (88 per each group) was calculated to give the study 80% power to detect a difference, assuming a two-sided significance test at the 0.05 level. From June 2010 to March 2013, 68 patients (44 patients with GTE supplementation

and 24 controls) completed the study protocol. Results: Of the 68 patients enrolled in the study, the incidences of metachronous polyps at the end-point colonoscopy were 53.8% (14 of 24) in control group and 23.8% (10 of 44) in GTE group (relative risk [RR], 0.27, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09–0.76). Occurrences of metachronous adenoma showed a decreasing trend in GTE group (16.7%, 7 of 44) compared to control group (26.9%, 7 of 24), which was not statistically significant (RR, 0.54, 95% CI, 0.17–1.78). There were no significant findings regarding serum lipid profiles, fasting serum glucose and serum C-reactive protein levels in the two groups. Conclusion: This preliminary study of GTE supplement suggests a favorable outcome for the chemoprevention of metachronous colorectal adenomas. Key Word(s): 1. green tea exrtracts; 2.

Our findings reveal that dysregulation of miRNA-122 (miR-122) con

Our findings reveal that dysregulation of miRNA-122 (miR-122) contributes to hepatic insulin resistance through PTP1B induction. Flavonoids are being actively studied Selleck Apitolisib as potential treatments for components of the metabolic syndrome. In our previous study, treatment with licorice flavonoid ameliorated liver steatosis.12 In the present study, we additionally discovered the effect of c-Jun

N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) inhibition by isoliquiritigenin (IsoLQ) or liquiritigenin (LQ) on miR-122 dysregulation using in vivo models and cell-based assays. Here, we report that they have the ability to abolish hepatic insulin resistance by recovering the constitutive expression of miR-122 responsible

for PTP1B down-regulation. Information on the materials used in this study is described in the Supporting Information. Animal studies were conducted in accordance with the guidelines of the Institutional Selleckchem NU7441 Animal Use and Care Committee. Male C57BL/6 mice at 6 weeks of age were started on a high-fat diet (HFD) for 11 weeks. Detailed information is provided in the Supporting Information. HepG2, H4IIE, C2C12, and 3T3-L1 cell lines were purchased from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, Rockville, MD). The isolation of primary rat hepatocytes is described in the Supporting Information. The plasmid containing Luc-PTP1B-3′UTR (3′-untranslated region; Product ID: HmiT015828-MT01) was specifically synthesized (GeneCopoeia, Rockville, MD) and was used in luciferase reporter assay. The plasmid contains firefly luciferase fused to the 3′UTR of human PTP1B, and Renilla luciferase that functions as a tracking gene. pMiR-122a luciferase reporter vector containing the firefly luciferase gene and miR-122 target site at 3′UTR was purchased from Signosis (Sunnyvale, CA). When

miR-122 is expressed, it binds to the sequence and results in repression of the luciferase gene. The sources of other vectors and procedures used in this study for transient transfections and reporter gene assays are provided in the Supporting Information. Total mafosfamide RNA was extracted with TRIzol (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) and was reverse-transcribed. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed with the Light Cycler 1.5 (Roche, Mannheim, Germany). Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was done using the EZ ChIP kit (Upstate Biotechnology, Lake Placid, NY) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. HFD feeding increased the mRNA and protein levels of PTP1B (Fig. 1A); the change in the level of PTP1B protein was greater than that in its mRNA, suggesting that a posttranscriptional mechanism might be involved in this event. RNA22 and TargetScan programs enabled us to select miRNAs that potentially bind to the 3′-untranslated region (3′UTR) of PTP1B (PTPN1) mRNA (Fig.

Broglio – Consulting: BMS Eric S Daar – Advisory Committees or R

Broglio – Consulting: BMS Eric S. Daar – Advisory Committees or Review Panels: Gilead; Consulting: Bristol Myers Squibb, Merck, ViiV, Janssen; Grant/Research

Support: Abbott, Merck, Gilead, ViiV, Pfizer, Bristol Myers Squibb Yong Yuan – Employment: Bristol Myers Squibb Company Anupama Kalsekar- Employment: Bristol Myers Squibb Melanie Quintana – Consulting: BMS Trong Le – Employment: Bristol-Myers Squibb Scott M. Berry-Consulting: BMS The following people have nothing to disclose: Michelle Detry, Brad Spellberg, MAPK inhibitor Roger J. Lewis More than four million people in the US are chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV), and an estimated 50–75% are unaware of their positive status. Currently, HCV is managed primarily by liver specialists. Few primary care providers (PCPs) have the knowledge and skills to provide HCV care and treatment. As a result of expanded HCV screening recommendations, new testing technologies and more effective treatments, more people infected with HCV will become aware of their status and seek treatment, creating additional demands on an already strained specialty network. In addition, as less complex treatments FK228 molecular weight with more manageable side effects and shorter durations become available, management of HCV infection will move from being a disease managed by specialists to

a disease managed by PCPs. Since 2010, the New York State Department of Health has funded 13 primary care settings to integrate HCV care and treatment. During their first year of providing services, 1,119 patients received HCV care services, of whom 815 (73%) were eligible for treatment. Of those eligible for and offered treatment, 254 (23%) initiated treatment, and 102 (9%) completed treatment. Among those who completed treatment, 37 (33%) achieved a sustained virological response. The overall purpose was to evaluate PCP performance on key

indicators designed to measure the quality of HCV care and treatment. Methods Thirteen HCV Care and Treatment Programs conducted chart reviews on a sample of clients to measure six performance indicators (PI) within four broad categories: HCV treatment, hepatitis vaccination, alcohol counseling and mental health assessment. Data were collected on a spreadsheet and submitted for analysis. Data from the programs were then compared to Elongation factor 2 kinase national data. Results During the review period, 1,119 clients were enrolled in the programs. From these patients, 607 (54%) records were reviewed for PI. 1 00 % had genotype testing prior to treatment; 1 00% had RNA testing prior to treatment; 89 % and 86% received HAV and HBV vaccine, respectively; 89% received alcohol counseling and 83% had mental health assessment prior to treatment initiation. When compared to national data, these programs performed better for each indicator. Conclusions As the demand for HCV care and treatment increases, expanding the capacity to treat HCV beyond liver specialists is critical.

It is also not associated with adverse reactions, such as thrombo

It is also not associated with adverse reactions, such as thrombocytopenia,

allergic reactions or the development of resistance through antibody formation and thus it is suitable for home treatment. Although, Hyate:C is no longer available, a recombinant factor VIII has been developed as a collaboration between Ipsen, Inspiration and Emory University. This is produced at a facility near Boston in the United States of America. There is a high degree of sequence and functional homology between human and porcine factor VIII. Both human and porcine factor VIII share a common sequence of A1–A2–B–A3–C1–C2 domains and both molecules are cleaved by thrombin to form a dimer composed of a light and heavy chain [24]. Autophagy inhibitor mouse OBI-1 is a recombinant B-domain deleted form of porcine factor VIII synthesized in baby hamster kidneys cells grown in a serum-free medium. It does not contain any porcine von Willebrand factor. Phase III clinical trials in patients with acquired haemophilia and congenital haemophilia

A complicated by alloantibodies are underway [25]. A goal of future research will be to attempt to produce a porcine factor VIII molecule, which is even less antigenic than the natural wild type. This could be done by substitution of specific amino acids through genetic engineering, eliminating those that seem to be particularly Fostamatinib supplier immunogenic, or creating human/porcine hybrid constructs [26,27]. Such modified molecules could then conceivably be used to treat noninhibitor patients too, or at least as treatment in the early period soon after diagnosis which is known to be the peak risk period Florfenicol for inhibitor development. There is already quite a wealth of information available

on which parts of the porcine and human factor VIII molecules are particularly immunogenic. The antibody response to the individual FVIII domains in haemophilic mice immunized with human or porcine FVIII has provided important information [28].The overall immunogenicity of human and porcine FVIII is similar, but significant differences in domain recognition have been identified. Anti-A2 and anti-C2 antibodies constitute the majority of inhibitors in both the human and porcine FVIII groups, similar to inhibitors that develop in humans. The proportions of anti-A2 or anti-C2 antibodies were not significantly different between the two groups in one study. However, the proportion of anti-C1 antibodies was significantly higher in the human FVIII group, whereas anti-A3 antibodies were more common in the porcine FVIII group. The differential immune response to human and porcine FVIII supports the view that it may be possible to reduce the immunogenicity of porcine (and human) FVIII by mutagenesis at specific sites, within the A2, A3 and C1 domains. In a final twist to this tale, it appears that pigs may be able to provide us with human coagulation proteins like factor VIII and IX [29,30].

26 However, further studies are needed in this regard Anatomic r

26 However, further studies are needed in this regard. Anatomic resection was found to be independently associated with both overall and very early recurrence at 1 year. Other authors have also found a benefit from performing anatomic resection for small HCC.31, 32 Whereas anatomic resection was associated with a lower overall recurrence of 60% and very early (<1 year) recurrence of 10% for the entire cohort, it was associated with a very dramatic 40% lower rate of recurrence at AZD1208 ic50 1 year for patients who were found to

have either vascular invasion or satellites and thus did not meet the criteria for pathologically very early cancers. In addition, anatomic resection was associated with a very significant improvement in survival as well as lower rates of overall and early recurrence in patients with satellites. These findings support the theory that removing the entire segment supplied by a portal pedicle will result in lower recurrence and, hopefully, PD0325901 in vitro better survival, particularly in those patients in whom the tumor has gained access to the microcirculation or developed micrometastases.33 These oncological benefits of an anatomical resection are something that

is unique to hepatectomy and cannot be duplicated by percutaneous ablation. Several shortcomings of this study must be noted so that readers can exercise the appropriate level of caution when interpreting and extrapolating the results. Perhaps the most significant limitation is the relatively small sample size. With only 32 events in terms of survival, the study lacked statistical power leading to an increased possibility of type 2 error. In addition, the low

number of events may also result in a type 1 error where some of the variables identified as significant on univariate analyses may have, in fact, not been truly associated with survival. The fact that two centers with such a large volume of hepatic resections for HCC were able to accrue only 132 cases of HCC ≤2 cm over a 20-year period points out the rare GNA12 nature of these small tumors in the Western experience. A sample size this small also prevented the ideal scenario of constructing and testing predictors of outcomes using separate training and validation cohorts. In addition, the limited number of events made robust multivariate analysis difficult. Consequently, the results of the multivariate analysis must be viewed as an exploratory analysis of this group of patients and clearly need validation in an independent cohort before clinical decisions can be made based on this data. In conclusion, hepatic resection for HCC ≤2 cm is safe and offers excellent long-term results. Platelet count ≥150,000/μL was associated with survival on multivariate analysis. Recurrence remains a significant problem despite the small size of these tumors.

Although fatigue was the symptom with the highest overall load in

Although fatigue was the symptom with the highest overall load in PBC, the symptom set with the greatest impact (compared to controls) were autonomic symptoms. These symptoms were prevalent in the PBC population (confirming earlier, smaller studies) but largely absent in age- and sex-matched controls. The etiology of autonomic dysfunction in PBC is unclear; there may be both central and peripheral effects. In the central model brain injury, perhaps arising as a consequence of inflammatory processes occurring as Sunitinib cell line a result of cholestasis inflammation (a model supported by animal modeling data for cholestasis25),

would affect autonomic regulating areas of the brain, leading to secondary peripheral autonomic effects. In the peripheral model vasomotor changes associated with liver disease and/or specific cardiac dysfunction associated with cardiac muscle abnormality in PBC26, 27 would give rise to processes mimicking central autonomic dysfunction peripherally. These models are, of course, not exclusive. Evidence in favor of an organic CNS process in PBC comes from brain imaging data and neurophysiology studies which suggest the presence of

organic brain change.24, 28 In the current study autonomic symptoms associated strongly with cognitive symptoms, fatigue, and with sleep disturbance. The strong associations between autonomic dysfunction, fatigue, problems with cognition, and problems with sleep regulation all provide further support for at least some organic CNS element underpinning the symptom complex in PBC. Again, further work in this area is warranted.

Ultimately the goal of this work is Akt inhibitor to improve the QOL of PBC patients. Although fatigue represents a major burden for patients, the impact that it has on their lives is itself complex. Although the presence of fatigue shows strong overall association with QOL, there was a clear-cut group of patients (nearly 300 in the national cohort) who had significant fatigue but whose perceived QOL remained good. A striking contrast was seen between this group of patients and the larger group of patients with severe Progesterone fatigue who perceived their QOL as being poor, and this related to significant symptoms of social function (a symptom domain that showed the strongest overall association with QOL). Whereas 89% of patients with severe fatigue and poor QOL showed social dysfunction symptoms, only 11% of patients with severe fatigue and good QOL showed social impairment. This observation, together with data linking social function symptoms to QOL, suggests that, whereas fatigue is an important symptom for putting patients at risk of impaired QOL, ultimately this can be modified by the extent to which they maintain social contacts and links. This observation builds on previous findings to suggest that coping strategies are important for perception of life quality in PBC.

All four patients with tumor size greater than 8 cm had no tumor

All four patients with tumor size greater than 8 cm had no tumor recurrence during 3 years of follow-up. The 3-, and 5-year DFS for patients with AFP ≤ or >400 ng/mL were 86.8%, 82.4%, and 86.8%, 72.4%, respectively (P > 0.05). The disease-free and overall survivals were not significantly different

among the buy Trichostatin A five AFP classes (≤20 ng/mL; 21–100 ng/mL; 101–200 ng/mL; 201–400 ng/mL; >400 ng/mL). Conclusion: Preopertative serum AFP level has no prognostic role in patients who underwent liver transplantation for HBV-associated HCC without vascular invasion. Although the accuracy and objectivity of the radiological imaging remains a problem, carefully studying the radiologic imaging is still regarded as a first-line test for selecting appropriate candidates for liver transplantation and predicting

tumor recurrence following liver transplantation in patients with HCC. Key Word(s): 1. HCC; 2. OLT; 3. alpha-fetoprotein; 4. vascular invasion; AZD3965 Presenting Author: TAUFIQUE AHMED Additional Authors: GUAN HUEI LEE Corresponding Author: TAUFIQUE AHMED Affiliations: Khoo Teck Puat Hospital; National University Hospital (S) Objective: To identify causes of death on the liver transplant waiting list. Methods: Retrospective single centre observational study, including all adult patients placed on the transplant waiting list at National University Hospital Singapore between 2000–12. Data was collected on age, sex, ethnicity, aetiology, indication for transplant, length of time on list and cause of death. Results: 140 patients were placed on the waiting list during the time period. 51 (36.4%) of very patients were transplanted, 80 (57.1%) died, and 9 (6.5%) were taken of the list due to clinical

improvement. The 80 patients that died waited a mean of 160 days for transplant. The mean bilirubin was 164 μmol/L, PT 26.9s, albumin 28 g/dL, creatinine 107 μmol/L, platelet count of 94 × 109/L and MELD 23.2 at the time of listing. Common aetiologies for these patients included 32.5% hepatitis B, 20% cryptogenic, 15% alcohol, 11.25% autoimmune, 6.25% hepatitis C, 7.5% drug induced, 3.75% Wilsons disease and 3.75% for other causes. In terms of indications for listing 43.75% listed for decompensated chronic liver disease, 23.75% for HCC, 18.75% for flare of chronic hepatitis B, 11.25% for acute liver failure and 2.5% for other reasons. For cause of death 58.75% died from sepsis, 15% as a result of progressive HCC, 7.5% for GI bleed, 5% for raised intracranial pressure, 3.75% for multi organ failure, 6.25% for others and 3.75% the cause of death was not known. 63.2% of patients listed for HCC as indication for transplant died from progressive HCC. If those listed for HCC are taken out of the overall analysis, 67.2% of patients would have died from sepsis.

Finally, the data may also not be easily generalized to nonmanage

Finally, the data may also not be easily generalized to nonmanaged-care populations. We observed a consistent increase in healthcare costs and utilization with progression of HCV-related liver disease, yet only a small proportion of patients in this analysis (18%) received combination antiviral therapy of pegylated interferon with ribavirin. This finding implies that a majority of patients who might have benefited from antiviral therapy were either not offered treatment, were not eligible, or did not consent to treatment. This observation is consistent with the finding that only a small proportion of chronic HCV patients (i.e., less than 30%) receive treatment

with peginterferon plus ribavirin.19-22

The nature of a claims database prevents us from determining why such a low percentage Navitoclax of patients received treatment. Although decompensated cirrhosis represents a contraindication to treatment with interferon-based therapy, the results of this analysis suggested that treatment for patients with less severe forms of CHC (NCD and CC) should be considered in order Quizartinib concentration to potentially prevent liver disease progression and to limit direct healthcare costs. Clearly, treatment should be offered before the development of comorbid conditions that preclude such therapy. Benefits associated with successful treatment for CHC (sustained virological response) include durable eradication of HCV infection, improved health-related quality of life, regression of hepatic fibrosis, and reduction in the incidence of HCC, liver-related mortality, and all-cause mortality.23-28 Our study did not consider screening for HCV among CHIR 99021 those at high risk, or include the costs of the recently approved protease inhibitors (boceprevir and telaprevir, which were not approved until after this study was conducted).

However, our data intuitively demonstrate that, in the future, the costs of screening and treatment must be offset by the costs of ignoring these options and allowing chronic HCV disease to progress from NCD to CC and ESLD. We have clearly shown that the direct costs associated with chronic HCV are considerable, averaging over $24,000 annually for all patients and $60,000 for those with advanced liver disease. A recent study showed that birth-cohort screening of all patients born between 1945 and 1965 is cost-effective, averaging $2,874 per new case identified. If the costs of treatment are included, this adds $15,700 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) assuming peginterferon plus ribavirin is used, or $35,700 per QALY saved assuming that a protease inhibitor is used in combination with peginterferon plus ribavirin.29 We have shown that the current cost of HCV disease management would likely offset these expenses.

3–5 In whole liver samples, IL28B gene expression does not differ

3–5 In whole liver samples, IL28B gene expression does not differ by IL28B genotype.

However, patterns of intrahepatic ISG expression have been shown to differ by IL28B genotype, where the good-response IL28B genotype has been associated with low-level ISG expression, consistent with the historical observation that low levels of liver ISG expression predicts rapid IFN treatment response, and perhaps also explaining the slightly higher viral loads that have been observed in good-response patients.67,68 This observation that IL28B mRNA expression did not differ between IL28B genotypes, but that patterns of ISG expression were significantly lower in good-response patients, suggested that the IL28B polymorphism might affect protein function or receptor binding. This hypothesis was tested for the exon 2 coding variant (rs8103142).68 Recombinant IFN-λ3 corresponding to the two alternative Selleckchem PF-562271 alleles at the rs8103142 IL28B coding variant were generated and tested in hepatoma cell culture models. Unfortunately, there was no difference in the levels of ISG induction, nor antiviral effect (in a replicon system), between the wild-type and variant protein.68 There are some limitations to this experimental model, however, meaning that further

investigation is warranted. More recently, Dill and colleagues have suggested that the IL28B genotype and hepatic ISG expression are not directly related, but rather, are independent predictors of SVR.69 Further investigation of the relationship between IL28B genotype, hepatic ISG expression, and IFN treatment response is therefore required. Protease inhibitors, selleck products TVR and BOC, are now approved in both North America and Europe for the treatment of G1 HCV. Approval will likely follow soon in other regions. Both drugs are used in combination with peg-IFN and RBV as triple therapy to reduce the selection of drug-resistant HCV variants. In the phase 3 trials, TVR/BOC regimens were associated with twofold increases in SVR rate in both treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced patients.70–73 In this context, an important question is whether IL28B will remain relevant in the era of DAA-containing

regimens. Retrospective analyses of the relationship between the IL28B polymorphism and treatment outcome in the phase 3 TVR/BOC registration studies have recently been presented (Table 2).74–76 Data from 912 (63%) of 1442 patients Topoisomerase inhibitor enrolled in separate phase III studies of BOC-based therapy for treatment-naïve (SPRINT-2) and treatment-experienced (RESPOND-2) settings were evaluated.74 Key points concerning the BOC treatment paradigm are that it involves a lead-in phase of 4 weeks of peg-IFN and RBV before the addition of BOC, and that response-guided therapy (RGT) allows short-duration therapy for patients who are persistently HCV—RNA undetectable at weeks 8–24 of therapy. In SPRINT-2, the association between the IL28B genotype and SVR was attenuated in the BOC-containing arms.