While the unfavorable endocrine effects of contest preparation LY3039478 manufacturer have been documented in male bodybuilders [1, 2, 10], anecdotal reports from physique athletes also describe a state in which metabolic rate has slowed to an extent that exceeds the predicted magnitude, making weight loss increasingly difficult despite low caloric intakes and high training volumes. Although such reports could potentially be related to inaccurate dietary reporting [11, 12], these claims may be substantiated by a number of metabolic adaptations to weight loss, including adaptive thermogenesis [13–15], increased mitochondrial
efficiency [16–19], and hormonal alterations that favor decreased energy expenditure, decreased satiety, and increased hunger [1, 2, 10]. As a dieting phase progresses, such adaptations may threaten dietary adherence, make further weight loss increasingly difficult, and predispose the individual to rapid weight regain following the cessation of the diet. Although data documenting the attainment
and recovery from extreme changes in body composition is limited, the present article aims to investigate the condition of metabolic adaptation described by competitors and identify potential mechanisms to explain such a phenomenon. The endocrine response to an energy deficit A number of hormones play prominent roles in the regulation of body composition, energy intake, and energy expenditure. The hormones of the thyroid gland, particularly triiodothyronine see more (T3), are known to play an important and direct role Endonuclease in regulating metabolic rate. Increases
in circulating thyroid hormones are associated with an increase in the metabolic rate, whereas lowered thyroid levels result in decreased thermogenesis and overall metabolic rate . Leptin, synthesized primarily in adipocytes, functions as an indicator of both short and long-term energy availability; short-term energy restriction and lower body fat levels are associated with decreases in circulating leptin. Additionally, higher concentrations of selleck products leptin are associated with increased satiety and energy expenditure . Insulin, which plays a crucial role in inhibiting muscle protein breakdown  and regulating macronutrient metabolism, is considered another “adiposity signal” . Similar to leptin, high levels of insulin convey a message of energy availability and are associated with an anorexigenic effect. Conversely, the orexigenic hormone ghrelin functions to stimulate appetite and food intake, and has been shown to increase with fasting, and decrease after feeding . Testosterone, known primarily for its role in increasing muscle protein synthesis and muscle mass , may also play a role in regulating adiposity . Changes in fat mass have been inversely correlated with testosterone levels, and it has been suggested that testosterone may repress adipogenesis . More research is needed to delineate the exact mechanism (s) by which testosterone affects adiposity.